Editions. -- Greek Commentaries. -- The Apocalypse does not owe much to Greek expositors. The earliest were probably the best. Fragmentary expositions are preserved in Justin and Irenaeus {clxxxviii} which are referred to by Jerome, De vir. illustr. ii. 9. The two earliest complete Commentaries by Melito (cf. Eus. H.E.. iv. 26. 2) and Hippolytus (Jerome, op. cit. 61) are lost. Clement of Alexandria (Eus. H.E. vi. 14. 1) commented on the Apocalypse, and Origen recorded his intention of so doing, In Matt. 49 (Lommatzsch, iv. 307). That his Scholia on the Apoc. have been preserved is highly probably: see p. clxxvi. Commentary by Oecumenius (discovered by Diekampf; see Sitzungsberichte der Kon. preuss. Akad. der Wiss., 1901, 1046 sqq.) The Commentary ascribed by Cramer (Catena, vii. p. vi, 497-582) to Oecumenius is, according to Diekampf, a compendium of Andreas (ed. Sylburg, 1596; Migne, P.G. cvi) and Arethas (Cramer's Catena, viii. 171-496; Migne, P.G. cvi).

Latin Commentaries. -- Victorinus (iii cent.). This Commentary appears in a shorter and in a longer form. For the latter see Migne, P.L. v. Haussleiter is engaged on a critical edition. Tyconius (iv-v cent. See Souter in J.T.S. xiv. 338 sqq. A critical edition is promised by Haussleiter); Primasius (vi cent., ed. by Haussleiter, Die Lateinische Apocalypse, 1891); Apringius (vi cent. ed by Ferotin, Paris, 1900). Bede, Ansbertus, Beatus, Haymo, and other carried on the tradition of the Church in the West. 

There were some Syriac Commentaries, the most important of which is that of Barsalibi (see Gwynn in Hermathena, vi-vii). 

In the mediaeval period the most important commentator was Joachim, abbot of Floris, 1195 (ed. Venice, 1519, 1527) 

Commentaries since the Reformation. -- Since the Reformation the number of writers on the Apocalypse is almost beyond count. Only a few of the chief names can be given. Erasmus, Annotationes in N.T., 1516; Bibliander, Comment. in Apoc., 1549; Bullinger, In Apoc. Conciones, 1557; Ribeira, In sacram b. Ioannis . . . Apoc. Commentarius, Lyons, 1593; Pereyra, Disputationes selectissimae super libro Apocalypsis, Venice, 1607; Salmeron, In Johannis Apoc. Praeludia, 1614; Alcasar, Vestigatio arcani sensus in Apoc., Lyons, 1618; Juan Mariana, Scholia in . . .  N.T., 1619; Brightman, Revelation of St. John, 1616; Cornelius a Lapide, Comm. in Apoc., 1627; Mede, Clavis Apocalypseos, Cambridge, 1627; Grotius, Annotationes, 1644; Hammond, Paraphrase and Annotations upon the N.T., 1653; Coccejus, Cogitationes in Apoc., 1673; Marckius, In Apoc. . . . Commentarius, Amsterdam, 1689; Vitringa, VAna,krisijApocalypsios2, 1719; I. Newton, {clxxxix}Observations upon . . . the Apoc., 1732; Bengel, Offenbarung Johannis, 1740; Wetstein, N.T. Graecum, 2 vols., 1751-52, Amsterdam; Eichhorn, Commentarius in Apoc., Gottingen, 1791. Amongst the Commentaries of the nineteenth century should mentioned: Vogel, Commentationes vii. de Apocalypsi, Erlangen, 1811-16; H. Ewald, Comm. in Apoc. Joannis, 1828, die Johanneischen Schriften, Gottingen, 1862; Lucke, see Studies, below; Zullig, Offenbarung Johannis, Stuttgart, 1834-40; M. Stuart, Comm. on the Apoc.2, 1845; De Wette, Erklarung der Offenbarung, 1848; Hengstenberg, Die Offenbarung . . . erlautert, Berlin, 1849-51; Elliott, Horae Apocalypticae2, 4 vols, 1851; Ebrard, Die Offenbarung Johannis, 1853;  G. Volkmar, Commentar zur Offenbarung, Zurich, 1862; C. Wordsworth, New Testament, vol. ii., London, 1864; Kliefoth, Offenbarung des Johannis, Leipzig, 1874; C. J. Vaughan, Revelation of St. John, London, 1870; J. C. A. Hofmann, Offenb. Johannis, 1874; A. Bisping, Erklarung der Apoc., Munster, 1876; C. H. A. Burger, Offenb. Johannis, 1877; J. P. Lange, Bibelwerk2, 1878; E. Reuss, L'Apocalypse, Paris, 1878; W. Lee, Revelation of St. John, London, 1881; Dusterdieck, Offenb. Johannis4, Gottingen, 1887; W. Milligan, Book of Revelation, London, 1889; Simcox, Revelation of St. John, Cambridge, 1893; Kubel, Offenbarung Johannis, Munich, 1893; Trench, Comm. on the Epistles to the Seven Churches7, 1897; Bousset, Offenbarung Johannis, Gottingen, 1896; new ed. 1906; Benson, The Apocalypse, London, 1900; C. A. Scott, Revelation (Century Bible), Edinburgh, 1902; Crampon, L'Apocalypse de S. Jean, Tournai, 1904; Th. Calmes, Paris, 1905; H. B. Swete, Apocalypse of St. John2, London, 1907; H. P. Forbes, New York, 1907; Hort, Apoc. of St. John, i.-iii., London, 1908; Holtzmann-Bauer, Offenbarung des Johannis3 (Hand-Comm.), Tubingen, 1908; J. M. S. Baljon, Openbaring van Johannes, Utrecht, 1908; Moffatt, Revelation of St. John (Expositor's Gk. Test.), London, 1910; E. C. S. Gibson, Revelation of St. John, London, 1910; A. Ramsay (Westminster N.T.), 1910; Diobouniotis und Harnack, Der Scholien-Kommentar des Origenes zur Apokalypse Johannis, Leipzig, 1911; J. T. Dean, Edinburgh, 1915.

Studies, Exegetical and Critical. -- Lucke, Versuch einer vollstandigen Einleitung in die Offenbarung Johannis2, Bonn, 1852; F. Bleek, Vorlesungen uber d. Apocalypse, Berlin, 1859; F. D. Maurice, Lectures on the Apocalypse, Cambridge, 1861; Milligan, Discussions on the Apocalypse, London, 1893; Selwyn, The Christian Prophets and the Prophetic Apocalypse, London, 1900; F. C. Porter (Hastings' D.B. iv. 239-266), 1902; Messages of the Apocalyptical Writers (pp. 169-294), London, 1905; W. R. Ramsay, Letters to the Seven Churches, London, 1904; E. A. Abbott, Notes on N.T. Criticsm, 1907, pp. 75-114, Johannine Grammar {cxc} 1906 -- valuable also for the student of the Apocalypse; Charles, Studies in the Apocalypse2, 1915.

Studies mainly Critical. -- These are frequently quoted in my Commentary simply under the author's name with page. Volter, Enstehung der Apokalypse (designated as Volter i." in my Commentary), Freiburg, 1885; Offenbarung Johannis (as "Volter ii." in my Commentary), Tubingen, 1886; Das Problem der Apokalypse (as "Volter iii."), Freiburg and Leipzig, 1893; Offenbarung Johannis (as "Volter iv."), Strassburg, 1904; Vischer, Offenbarung Johannis, Leipzig, 1886; Weyland, De Apokalypse van Johannes, Groningen, 1888; Schoen, L'Origine de l'Apocalypse, Paris, 1887; Spitta, Offenbarung des Johannes, Halle, 1889; Erbes, Offenbarung Johannis, Gotha, 1891; Schmidt, Die Komposition der Offenbarung Johannis, Freiburg, 1891; Bousset, Zur Textkritik der Apokalypse, (Textkritische Studien zum N.T.), Leipzig, 1894; Rauch, Offenbarung des Johannes, Haarlem, 1894; Hirscht, Die Apokalypse und ihre neueste Kritik, Leipzig, 1895; J. Weiss, Offenbarung des Johannes, Gottingen, 1904; Wellhausen, Analyse der Offenbarung Johannis, Berlin, 1907

Texts. -- B. Weiss, Die Johannes-Apokalypse (Textkritische Untersuchungen und Textherstellung), Leipzig, 1891, 2nd ed. 1902; Souter, N.T. Graec, 1910; Moffatt (Expositor's Greek Testament), 1910; Von Soden, 1914. Von Soden's is the least satisfactory of modern texts so far as the Apocalypse is concerned. Notwithstanding all the work done in recent years on the text of the Apocalypse, that of Westcott and Hort remains the best, though the text presupposed by Bousset is in some of its details superior. Of these scholars, Westcott and Hort alone have recognized that the right text in 21.8.18 31.7.14 is tw/| avgge,lw| tw/|, though among the uncials A has preserved it only in three passages and C in one. Souter follows A in 21.8 but not in 218. Von Soden has rejected the right reading in the seven passages, and branded it (p. 2070) as a "Willkurlichkeit" on the part of the scribe of A. A knowledge of John's grammar would have made the adoption of tw/| avgge,lw| th/j evn ) ) ) evkklhsi,aj impossible on the part of any editor.

Variants. -- See vol. i. pp. clxvi-clxxi, vol. ii. 234 sq.

Some Of the Abbreviations Used In This Work
Aq. or a,,,
Version of Aqulia or a
Authorized Version
LXX or o,,
{cxci} R. V.
Revised Version
Symm. or s,
Theod. or q ,
Abbott, Gram.
" Voc.
Abbott, Johannine Grammar, 1906
" Johannine Vocabular, 1905
Blass, Gram.
Blass, Grammar of N.T. Greek (transl. by Thackeray), 1898
Hastings, Dictionary of the Apostolic Church
Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible
The Fourth Gospel
1. 2. 3 J
Johannine Epistles
The Apocalypse
Schrader's Die Keilinschriften und das alte Testament, edited and rewritten by H. Zimmern and H. Winckler, 1903
M. W.'s Gram.
Moulton's edition of Winer, 1882
Moulton, Gram.
Moulton's Grammar of N.T. Greek2, vol. i., 1906
Massoretic Text
New Testament
Old Testament
Robertson, Gram.
Robertson, Grammar of the Greek of the N.T., 1914
Sacred Books of the East (edited by Max Muller), Oxford
Thackeray, Gram.
Thackeray, Grammar of the O.T. in Greek, vol. i., 1909.
Theologische Literaturzeitung
Weber's Judische Theologie, 1897
Westcott and Hort, The N.T. in Greek
Volter i.
" ii.
" iii
" iv
See above under the Section "Studies mainly Critical."
Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft
Preuschen's Zeitschrift fur die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft
Z.K.W. or Z.K.W.L.
Zeitschrift fur Kirchliche Wissenschaft und Kirchliches Leben
Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Theologie

1. This bibliography is abbreviated as much as possible. For fuller bibliographies in various directions the reader should consult Lucke, Einl in d. Offenbarung2, 518 sqq., 952 sqq.; Bousset, Offenbarung Johannis, 1906, pp. 48-118; Holtzmann-Bauer's Hand-Commentar, iv. 380-390; Walch, Bibl. Theol. selecta, iv. 760 sqq.; Stosch, Catalogus rariorum in Apoc. Joannis Commentariorum; Elliott, Horae Apocalypticae, iv. 275-528. In my Lectures on the Apocalypse, pp. 1-78, I have combined a bibliography and a history of the intepretation of the Apocalypse, as Bousset and Holtzmann-Bauer have done, though on a smaller scale than Bousset.
2. For those used in the Greek text see vol. ii. 227-235.

Scanned and edited by Brad Johnson