A Short Grammar of the Apocalypse.


§ 1. Noun, adjective, and verb forms, p. cxvii. § 2. The article, p. cxix. § 3. Pronouns, p. cxxi. § 4. The verb, p. cxxiii. § 5. Prepositions, p. cxxvii. § 6. Conjunctions and other particles, p. cxxxiv. § 7. Case, p. cxxxviii. § 8. Number, p. cxli. § 9. Gender, p. cxlii.  § 10. The Hebraic Style of the Apocalypse, p. cxlii.

i. Greek needs to be translated into Hebrew in order to discover its meaning, p. cxliv. 
(a) Resolution of participle into finite verb, p. cxliv. (b) Resolution of infinitive into finite verb, p. cxlvi. (c) Hebrew constructions possible and unintelligible in Greek, p. cxlvi. (d. e. f.) Further Hebraisms. (g) Secondary meanings of Hebrew words attributed to Greek words where these words agree in their primary meaning, p. cxlvii. (h. i.) Other Hebrew idioms literally reproduced, p. cxlviii.
ii. Other commonplace Hebraisms, p. cxlviii.  iii. Hebrew constructions with occasional parallels in vernacular Greek, p. cxlix.  iv. Certain passages needing to be retranslated in order to discover the corruption or mistranslation in the Hebrew sources used by our author, p. cl.
§ 11. Unique expressions, p. clii. § 12. Solecisms due to slips on the part of our author, p. clii. § 13. Primitive corruptions due to accidental or deliberate changes, p. cliv. § 14. Constructions in the interpolations conflicting with our author's use, p. clv. § 15. Order of words, p. clvi. § 16. Combination of words, p. clix. 

{cxviii}§ 1. Noun, Adjective, and Verb forms.

(i.) Nouns. -- Words ending in -ra form their gen. and dat. in -rhj( rh|( as macai,rhj, 1314.(1)macai,rh| 1310(bis). On the various theories as to the origin of this late change, see Thackeray, Gr. 141, where also he states that in the LXX out of 79 examples of ma,caira in the gen. and dat. the h forms are certainly original in only 2. -rhj forms become practically universal under the Early Roman Empire.

(ii.) Adjectives. -- crusa/n, AaC (for crush/n), 113, is formed on the analogy of avrgura/n. The contracted form crusou/j occurs always (15 times) in our author, elsewhere in the N.T. 3 times. The best uncials are only at variance in 21. On the other hand, baqe,a (ba,qh, a 025), 224, is original.

(iii.) Verbs -- (a) Irregular or unusual forms. -- Present. du,nh, 22 (only once so in LXX) for du,nasai, presupposes du,nomai (see Thackeray, Gr. 218). It is found in the poets and in prose writers from Polybius onward.  avfei/j, 220, and avfi,ousin, 119, presuppose avfi,w (which is found in Eccles. 218) and not avfi,hmi. Schmiedel suggests a present avfe,w (Thackeray, 251). didw/, 39, and avpodidou/n, 222, presuppose dido,w, but dido,asin, 1713, di,dwmi. In like manner avpodidou/n, 911 (so also Jer. 231 BA, Sir 2022), presupposes avpollu,w as deiknu,ontoj does deiknu,w (cf. Ex. 258; Thackeray, 245). All these instances but the first show the transition from forms in -mi to -w forms.

(b) Imperfect and Aorists with a instead of e forms, or ending in -a or -an. -- ei=can, 98.9 (aA). avph/lqa,(2) 109 (A: -qon, aC 025. 046). avph/lqan, 211 (Aa: -qon, 046. -qen, 025): avph/lqan, 214 (A: -qen, a 046). avfh/kaj, 24 (Aac.c. 025. 046: -kej, a*C). ei=da, 176 (Aa (i=da): ei=don, 025): (e)i=da, 173 (A: ei=don, a 025). pe,sate, 616 (A 205): evxe,lqate, 184 (Aa). See Thackeray, Gr. 211-212.

(c) Perfects with termination -ej (2nd sing.) for -aj, kekopi,akej) -- (a) 28 (AC); pe,ptwkej, 25 (a. -kaj, AC 046). It is rare in the LXX (Thackeray, Gr. 215) and in the papyri. See Robertson, Gr. 337. I have generally with A adopted the -aj form. (b) Perfects ending in -an // pe,ptwkan // 183 (AC. peptw,kasin, a 046: pe,pwkan 025: pepw,kasin 110, 175al. Rd. pepo,tiken): ei;rhkan, 193 (Aa 025): [ge,gonan 216 Aac: ge,gona, a 025. 046]. This termination is found in Asia Minor as early as 246 B.C. and in Egypt in 162 B.C. It is found in Cretan inscriptions, and Robertson traces its origin to Crete (Gr. 336).
     In 82 we have e`sth,kasin) But it occurs in an interpolation. {cxix}Hence our author did not apparently use the perfect ending in -asi)

(d) Various Aorist forms. -- avna,ba, 41, avna,bate, 1112: evrre,qh, 611 94: sth,rison, 32 (AC 025): pei/n, 166. According to Thackeray (Gr. 64), pei/n (or pi/n) occurs 21 times, while piei/n occurs 97 times in the LXX (aAB).

(e) Pluperfect form. -- 711i`sth,keisan instead of ei`sth,kesan. This -eisan is found regularly in the LXX (Thackeray, Gr. 216). As regards the beginning of the word, its usual form in the LXX is i`sth,kein (Thackeray, Gr. 201).

(f) Augment. -- 32 e;mellon (AaC 025): 104h;mellon (AC 046). Our author uses evdu,nato, 79 (AaC 046), 143 (AaC), 158 (AC: hvdun) a 025. 046). Hence it should be read in 53 with a against A 025. 046. In avnoi,gnumi our author augmetns the preposition in h;noixen, 63, hvnoi,gh, 1119 155, hvnoi,cqhsan, 2012(bis), and trebly augments the participle in hvnew|gme,noj, which should perhaps be read in 38 with a 025 against avnew|gme,noj (AC 046), seeing that only 046 supports avnew|gme,noj in 41 102.8 1911 against the other chief uncials.

§ 2. The Article.

(i.) The article introduces conceptions assumed to be familiar in apocalyptic though mentioned in the text for the first time: 101 h` i=rij, 103 ai` e`pta. brontai,: cf. also 113 1214 1612. With great aptness the art. is used in to.n po,lemon, 1614, eivj to.n po,lemon, 1919, because the war here is the great Messianic war at the world's close. On the other hand, compare the phrase eivj po,lemon, 97.9.

(ii.) The generic art. (Blass, Gr. 147) is regularly found with h[lioj (except in 72 1612 225), gh/( qa,lassa( ouvrano,j)

(iii.) In the case of ordinal numbers, when the ordinal precedes the noun it is preceded by the art.: when the ordinal follows the noun, the art. is repeated: cf. 47 63 1312 206 218.

(iv.) The art. can appear with the predicate when the subject and predicate are convertible or identical.(3) Cf. 117.20 223 317 1718 1823 [198] 216.8 2213.16. After ou-toj the pred. has the art. on this principle; cf. 714 114.10 144 199 205.[14].

(v.) (a) When an adjective or participle follows its noun, the art. is repeated if the noun has the art. When the adjective stands between teh art. and the  noun, the emphasis lies on the adjective; when it follows with the repeated art., both noun and adjective are emphasized, 209 th.n po,lin th.n hvgaphme,nhn, 212.10 th.n po,lin th.n a`gi,an -- the City par excellence and the Holy City in contrast to the earthly Jerusalem spiritually called Sodom and {cxx} Egypt, 118: cf. 86 oi` ) ) ) a;ggeloi oi` e;contej, 1718 h` po,lij h` mega,lh.

(b) The same rule holds good in the case of prepositional phrases coming after an articular noun:(4) 14 tai/j e`pta. evkklhsi,aij tai/j evn th/| VAsi,a: 224: 55 o` le,wn o` evk t) fulh/j: 1116 1119 1417 163.12 1914.21 208.13. Hence in the titles of the Letters to the Churches we should always read tw/| avgge,lw| th/j evn ) ) ) evkklhsi,aj. A is right here three times and C once. See also Order of Words, p. clvi sq.
     Again in 155 the text o` nao.j t) skhnh/j t) marturi,ou evn tw/| ouvranw/|, which is impossible in other respects, wrongly omits the art. before evn tw/| ouvranw/|. In our author prepositional phrases and genitives never intervene between the art. and its noun, but follow the noun, the former always preceded by the repeated art.(4)
(vi.) Phrases which occur for the first time without the art. have the art. prefixed on their recurrence. 46-8 te,ssera zw/|a ) ) ) ta. te,ssera zw/|a: 56-8 avrni,on ) ) ) tou/ avrniou: 1316.17 ca,ragma ) ) ) to. ca,ragma: 152ab qa,lassan u`ali,nhn ) ) )t) qal) t) u`al) etc.
(a) Hence in 1116 the art. must with acC 025. 046 (against a*A which om.) be read before ei;kosi te,ssarej. Hence, further, it follows that 2217 u[dwr zwh/j dwrea,n must be transposed before 216 tou/ u[datoj th/j zwh/j dwrea,n. The need for the rearrangement of 204-22 has been shown at length in vol. ii. 144-154.

(b) In 173, however, we find gunai/ka kaqhme,hn evpi. qhri,on although the qhri,on has been frequently mentioned previously. Similarly in 141 the art. is omitted before e[katon tessera,konta te,ssarej cilia,dej although they have already been described in 74-8. This omission is due in the former case to our author's use of a source, and in the latter to his incorporation of an independent vision of his own. If he had had an opportunity of revision, we must assume from his careful use of the art. elsewhere that he would have inserted the art. in both cases.

(vii.) Omission of Article. -- (a) The art. is ommited possible owing to Semitic influences in 120 a;ggeloi t) e`) evkklhsiw/n, 29 sunagwgh. t) Satana/, 67, 616 avpo. prosw,pou t) kaqhme,nou,(5) 72.4 152 {cxxi} kiqa,raj tou/ qeou/, 2112 ui`w/n VIsrah,l, 2114 dw,deka ovno,mata t) avposto,lwn, 222 eivj qerapei,an t) evqnw/n.
(b) The art. is frequently omitted in prepositional phrases. a;cri qana,tou, 210 1211 133: evn qana,tw|, 223: evn puri. kai. qei,w|, 1410: eivj fulakh,n, 210: cf. also 222 1310

(c) The art. is omitted before proper names. VIhsou/j and VIwa,nnhj are always anarthrous. We have o` Cristo,j when used alone, 1115 1210 204.6, but anarthrous in VIhsou/j C)( 11.2.5. In tw/| Bala,k, 214, the art. is inserted because the name is indeclinable. In 1612 the art. before Euvfra,thn may point to the earlier mention of this river in 914. The text in 26.15 presents a difficulty. Nikolai?tw/n is first with the art. and then without it. The noun in 26 may be treated as a description of a certain class, and then treated as a proper name in 215. In the predicate the art. is found before proper names: cf. 68 [811] 129 1913 202. qeo,j always has the art. except in 72 and in 217 where it is in the pred. Ku,rioj, when alone, has the art., cf. 114.8.15, but we find evn kuri,w|, 1413, and ku,rioj kuri,wn, 1714 1916. When combined with other names, o` ku,rioj o` qeo,j, 2122 226, o` ku,rioj VIhsou/j, 2221, but also ku,rioj o` qeo,j [18] 48 196 225. In the vocative we find ku,rie, 154, ku,rie o` qeo,j, 1117 153 167, or the Semit. voc. o` ku,rioj o` qeo,j, 411.

(viii.) The art. with the infinitive occurs only in 127 (tou/ polemh/sai), where, however, the construction is a pure Hebraism and is equivalent to a finite verb in Greek. See vol. i. 322. In J, on the other hand, we have the ordinary Greek construction of pro. tou/ before the infinitive in 148 1319 175, and of dia. to, before it in 224.

(ix.) When a noun or participle preceded by the article follows a noun (in the gen. dat. or acc.), and should therefore be in the gen. dat. or acc., it may in our author, according to Hebrew usage, stand in the nom.: cf. 15 avpo. VIhsou/ Cristou/( o` ma,rtuj o` pisto,j, 220 th.n gunai/ka VIeza,bel( h` le,gousa. On this Hebraism see below, p. cxlix sq.

§ 3. Pronouns

(i.) Possessive. -- On vernacular and ordinary possessives see notes on 22.19 and footnote in vol. ii. 208, where it is shown that though sou may precede or follow its noun, the genitives of auvto,j can only follow. The genitive is found before its noun in the best authorities (A vg s1.2), in 213 auvtw/n qeo,j; but the text is manifestly corrupt, and the wrong order may be due to the editor of 204-22. It is also found in 185, but this is a source. See Abbott, Gr. 414 sqq., 601 sqq. evmo,j only once in 220.(6)

{cxxii} (ii.) Personal. -- (a) auvto,j is used as an emphatic personal pronoun,(7) cf. 320 1410 1915(bis) 217. It is used intensively (= "self") in [1417] 1711 (source) 1912. The phrase kai. auvto,j, "he also," "himself also" (in J 710), seems not to belong to our author except in the phrase w`j kai. auvth,, 186 (a source): cf. w`j kavgw,, 227 321. It occurs, however, in a Greek source, 1711, and in an interpolation, 1417. In 1410 the kai, before auvto,j is a Hebraism and not to be translated. kai. auvto,j in 320 1915(bis) 217 = "and he." auvto,j has lost this meaning in modern Greek and becomes a demonstrative.

(b) e`autou/ is found twice between the art. and its noun in 103.7. Here the intervening e`autou/ is very emphatic. See Abbott, Gr. 415.
(iii.) Demonstrative. -- (a) o[de occurs seven times and refers to what follows, but not once in J. (b) ou-toj refers to what precedes, 714 114.6 [144] etc. But not always in J, 1 J. Cf. J 629 1512: 1 J 15 514 where it refers to an explanatory clause introduced by i[na( eva,n( or o[ti. (c) evkei/noj is used only as an adjectival pronoun in our author in temporal phrases, 96 1113, but in J constantly as a substantival pronoun. See Abbott, Gr. 283 sqq.

(iv.) Indefinite. -- ei-j = "a": cf. 813 e`no.j avetou/, 913 fwnh.n mi,an, 1917 e[na a;ggelon. Not in J. Both authors,  however, use ei-j evk; while J uses ei-j tij evk, 1149, once in this sense, or simply tij with a noun, 446 55, or with a proper name, 111 1220. tij is found only in ei; tij( eva,n tij in our author, save in 71 (?).

(v.) Relative. -- (a) o[stij is mostly used of a class of persons or things, 17 224 94 etc.; but it is also used of an individual, 118 1213 192: cf. 112. Similarly in J. I have followed the advice given in Abbott's Gr. (218, footnote) and rendered o[stij generally by "that," which "introduces a statement essential to the complete meaning of the antecedent," and o[j by "who" or "which" -- words which carry no such meaning.

(b) This relative is never attracted to the case of its antecedent(8) in our author, though this attraction is frequent in J and in 1 J 324.

1. It is noteworthy that in 1310 a 025. 046 twice change macai,rh| into macai,ra| against AC, and that 025. 046 makes a corresponding change in 1314, against aAC.
2. Cf. kate,funa, Ps. 1429 (RTac.a). See Thackeray, Gr. 211.
3. In 120 the second evpta, is an interpolation and the ai` evpta, belongs to the predicate. See vol. ii. 389, footnote.
4. th.n blasfhmia,n evk tw/n lego,ntwn in 29 is difficult. a s1.2 read th.n evk, while 025 and several cursives om. evk. Either of these readings removes the difficulty. But evk t) lego,ntwn is here to be taken partitively. Hence: "the blasphemy of certain of those who say," etc. Thus the art. could not be repeated before evk tw/n lego,ntwn. This is better than the explanation given in my notes in vol. i. 56. See, however, under § 5. vi. (a) on evk.
5. In 2011 ou- avpo. tou/ prosw,pou should, according to our author's usage, be ou- avpo. prosw,pou auvtou/ or ou- avpo. prosw,pou. This anomaly seems due, like others in 204-22, to the disciple of the Seer who edited these chapters after the Seer's death.
6. J has it 39 times. In J we find also (h`me,teroj only in 1 J 13 22) so,j, u`me,teroj( i;dioj (15 times), not one of which occurs in our author. Seeing that evmo,j and kindred possessive adjectives had all but ousted mou in Asia Minor, Moulton (Gr. 40 sq.) infers that our author must have been a recent immigrant there. If this is right, J must have been settled there for some time. The possessive evmo,j and so,j are disappearing in the papyri, and in modern Greek no possessive adjective exists. See Robertson, Gr. 684.
7. J also uses auvto,j in this sense, but it is unemphatic. When he wishes to express emphasis he frequently uses evkei/noj, which our author does not use in this sense. He only uses it twice as a demonstrative in two phrases expressing time. See Abbott, Gr. 283 sqq. J uses auvto,j together with the personal pronoun or proper name, 224 328 42.44, but not so our author.
8. It is once found in a source, i.e. 186.


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