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456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463

THE SUBSTANTIVE PARTICIPLE.

456. The Substantive Participle is employed as itself the name of an action. It thus performs a function which is more commonly discharged by the Infinitive. HA. 980-984; G. 1578-1593.

457. The Substantive Participle as Subject. The Substantive Participle may be used as an integral part of the subject of a verb, the action which it denotes being itself an essential part of that of which the predicate is affirmed.

Matt. 6:16; o[pwj fanw/sin toi/j avnqrw,poij nhsteu,ontej, that they may be seen of men to fast. (Not only they, but their fasting, is to be seen.)

Acts 5:42; ouvk evpau,onto dida,skontej kai. euvaggelizo,menoi to.n Cristo,n VIhsou/n, they ceased not teaching and preaching Jesus as the Christ. See also Matt. 1:18, e;cousa; Mark 6:2, gino,menai; Luke 5:4, lalw/n.

458. The Substantive Participle as Object. The Substantive Participle may be used as an integral part of the object of a transitive verb. This occurs especially after verbs of perception, the action denoted by the participle being itself that which one perceives.
Luke 8:46; evgw. ga.r e;gnwn du,namin evxelhluqui/an avpV evmou/ for I perceived power to have gone out of me.

John 7:32; h;kousan oi` Farisai/oi tou/ o;clou goggu,zontoj, the Pharisees heard the multitude murmuring.

459. With verbs of finishing, ceasing, etc., the Substantive Participle agrees grammatically with the subject of the verb.  Since, however, certain of these verbs are transitive, the action denoted by the participle must in these cases be regarded as logically the object of the verb.
Matt. 11:1o[te evte,lesen o` VIhsou/j diata,sswn toi/j dw,deka maqhtai/j auvtou/, when Jesus had finished commanding his twelve disciples. Cf. Matt. 13:53; see also Luke 7:45.
460. THE SUBSTANTIVE PARTICIPLE IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

A Substantive Participle forming a part of the object of a verb is sometimes equivalent to a clause of indirect discourse.

1 John 4:2; pa/n pneu/ma o] o`mologei/ VIhsou/n Cristo.n evn sarki. evlhluqo,ta evk tou/ qeou/ evstin, every spirit which confesseth that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God. See also Luke 4:23; Acts 7:12; 8:23; 3 John 4.
461. The Substantive Participle as a Limiting Genitive. The Substantive Participle may be used as an integral part of a genitive limiting phrase.
John 4:39; polloi. evpi,steusan eivj auvto.n tw/n Samaritw/n dia. to.n lo,gon th/j gunaiko.j marturou,shj, many of the Samaritans believed on him because of the word of the woman testifying, i.e. of the woman’s testimony. See also Heb. 8:9; and cf. Jos. Ant. 10. 4. 2, where a Substantive Participle occurs after a preposition.
462. The Substantive Participle, like the Adverbial Participle, always stands in the so-called predicative position. Cf. 455, and 427.

463. The Substantive Participle must be carefully distinguished from the Adjective Participle used substantively.  The latter designates the doer of an action, the former the action itself. “In the one it is the adjective force of the word which is substantivized, in the other, the verbal force.”  See Stevens, u.s., 419, Rem. 1.