[BACK]
321 322 323 324
325 326 327 328
329 330 331 332
333


IV. RELATIVE CLAUSES INTRODUCED BY
WORDS MEANING UNTIL, WHILE, AND BEFORE.

321. {Ewj is properly a relative adverb which marks one action as the temporal limit of another action. It does this in two ways, either (a) so that the beginning or simple occurrence of the action of the verb introduced by e[wj is the limit of the action denoted by the principal verb, or (b) so that the continuance of the former is the limit of the latter. In the former case  e[wj means until, in the latter, while, as long as.

On the classical use of  e[wj and similar words, see HA. 920-924; G. 1463-1474; G.MT. 611-661; Gild. in A.J.P. IV. 416-418. On e[wj in Hellenistic Greek see G. W. Gilmore in J.B.L. 1890, pp. 153-160.

322.Clauses Introduced by e[wj and referring to the Future. When the clause introduced by e[wj depends on a verb of future time, and refers to a future contingency, it takes the Subjunctive with  a;n both in classical and New Testament Greek.

Mark 6:10 evkei/ me,nete e[wj a'n evxe,lqhte evkei/qen, there abide till ye depart thence. See also Matt. 5:18; 12:20; Luke 9:27; 1 Cor. 4:5.
323 In classical Greek, especially in tragic poetry, the Subjunctive without a;n sometimes occurs with e[wj after a verb of present or future time. G.MT. 620. In the New Testament this construction is frequent.
Luke 15:4; kai. poreu,etai evpi. to. avpolwlo.j e[wj eu[rh| auvto,, and goeth after that which is lost, until he find it. See also Matt. 10:23; Luke 12:59; 22:34.
324. Clauses Introduced by e[wj and referring to what was in Past Time a Future Contingency. When the clause introduced by e[wjdepends on a verb of past time and refers to what was at the time of the principal verb conceived of as a future contingency, it takes the Optative without a;n in classical Greek. In the New Testament it takes the Subjunctive without a;n.
Matt. 18:30; e;balen auvto.n eivj fulakh.n e[wj avpodw/| to. ovfeilo,menon, he cast him into prison till he should pay that which was due.
325  The Subjunctive after e[wj in the New Testament is always an Aorist, the action denoted being conceived of as a simple event, and  e[wj meaning properly until. Thus the accurate translation of Mark 14:32 (Matt. 26:36 is similar), kaqi,sate w-de e[wj proseu,xwmai, is, Sit ye here till I pray, or have prayed (cf. 98). While I pray (R.V.) is slightly paraphrastic. Cf. Luke 17:8.

326Clauses Introduced by e[wj (until) and referring to a Past Fact. When  e[wj  means until and the clause introduced by it refers to an actual past occurrence, the verb of this clause is in a past tense of the indicative, as in an ordinary relative clause referring to past time.

Matt. 2:9; o` avsth,r . . . proh/gen auvtou,j( e[wj evlqw.n evsta,qh evpa,nw ou- h=n to. paidi,on, the star . . . went before them, tilt it come and stood over where the young child was.
327. Clauses Introduced by e[wj (while) and referring to a Contemporaneous Event. When e[wj means while and the clause introduced by it refers to an event contemporaneous with that of the principal verb, it has the construction of an ordinary relative clause. Cf. 293.
John 9:4; h`ma/j dei/ evrga,zesqai ta. e;rga tou/ pe,myanto,j me e[wj h`me,ra evsti,n, we must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day.
328. In John 21:22, 23; 1 Tim. 4:13, the exact meaning of e[wj e;rxomai is probably while I am coming, the coming being conceived of as in progress from the time of speaking. Cf. Luke 9:13. In 1 Cor. 4:5 on the other hand it is thought of as a future event. In Mark 6:45  e[wj avpolu,ei represents  e[wj avpolu,w of the direct form (cf. 347), the original sentence meaning, go before me while I am sending away, etc.

329. When the  e[wj clause refers to the future or to what was at the time of the principal verb the future (322-326), it frequently has the force of a conditional relative clause. See Matt. 18:30 ; Luke 15:4. When it refers to an actual event (327, 328), it is an ordinary temporal clause (293), requiring special mention here only to distinguish these usages from those described above.

330. In the New Testament e[wj is sometimes followed by ou- or o[tou{Ewj is then a preposition governing the genitive of the relative pronoun, but the phrase  e[wj ou- or e[wj o[tou is in effect a compound conjunction having the same force as the simple e[wj. The construction following it is also the same, except that a;n never occurs after  e[wj ou- or e[wj o[tou. See Matt. 5:25; 13:33; John 9:18; Acts 23:12.

331. Clauses introduced by a;cri( a;cri ou-, a;cri h-j h`me,raj( me,cri and me,xrij ou-, have in general the same construction and force as clauses introduced by e[wj( e[wj ou- and e[wj o[tou.

Mark 13:30; ouv mh. pare,lqh| h` genea. au[th me,crij ou- tau/ta pa,nta ge,nhtai)

Acts 7:18; hu;xhsen o` lao.j kai. evplhqu,nqh evn Aivgu,ptw| a;cri ou- avne,sth basileu.j e[teroj evpV Ai;gupton. See also Rev. 15:8; 20:3; Luke 17:27; Acts 27:33.

Rev. 7:3; mh. avdikh,shte th.n gh/n mh,te th.n qa,lassan mh,te ta. de,ndra( a;cri sfragi,swmen tou.j dou,louj tou/ qeou/

332. Gal. 3:19 [WH. text] furnishes one instance of a;crij a;n with a word meaning until after a verb of past time [WH. margin, Tisch., and Treg. read a;crij ou`]; cf. 324. Rev. 2:25 contains the combination a;cri ou` a;n with the Future Indicative; cf. 330. Rev. 17:17 contains a Future Indicative with  a;cri after a past tense.

333. Clauses introduced by pri,n and employing a finite mood have in general the same construction as clauses introduced by  e[wj)

The New Testament, however, contains but two instances of a finite verb after pri,n, Luke 2:26 Acts 25:16. In both cases the clause is in indirect discourse, and expresses what was the the point of view of the original statement a future contingency. In Luke 2:26 the Subjunctive with a;n is retained from the direct discourse. In Acts 25:16 the Optative represents a Subjunctive with or without a;n of the direct discourse. Cf. 341-344.

REM. 1. The employment of a finite mood rather than an Infinitive in these instances is in accordance with classical usage. Cf. 382, and G. 1470.

REM. 2. In Acts 25:16 h; occurs after pri,n, and in Luke 2:26 it appears as a strongly attested variant reading. Attic writers used the simple pri,n with the finite moods. Cf. 381.