418. The Participle is a verbal adjective, sharing in part the characteristics of both the verb and the adjective. As a verb it has both tense functions and functions which may be designated as modal functions, being analogous to those which in the case of verbs in the Indicative, Subjunctive, or Optative belong to the mood. For the proper understanding of a participle, therefore, it is necessary to consider (a) The grammatical agreement, (b) The use of the tense, and (c) The logical force or modal function. The first and second of these have already been treated, grammatical agreement in 116, the uses of the tenses in 118-156. It remains to consider the logical force or modal function of the participle. From the point of view of the interpreter this is usually the matter of most importance.
419. In respect to logical force, participles may be classified as Adjective, Adverbial, and Substantive.
REM. 1. The terminology here employed for the classification of participles differs somewhat from that commonly employed. It is adopted substantially from the article of Professor Wm. Arnold Stevens, "On the Substantive Use of the Greek Participle" in T.A.P.A. 1872. The Adjective Participle corresponds nearly to the Attributive Participle as treated in G. and H.A., the Adverbial Participle to the Circumstantial Participle, and the Substantive Participle to the Supplementary Participle.
REM. 2. Respecting the use of the negatives mh, and ouv with participles, see 485.