420 421 422 423 424
425 426 427 428 429
430 431 432 433


420. The Adjective Participle limits its subject directly and exclusively. It attributes the action which it denotes to the subject as a quality or characteristic, or assigns the subject to the class marked by that action. HA. 965; G. 1559.
Acts 10:1, 2; avnh.r de, tij evn Kaisarei,a| ovno,mati Kornh,lioj( e`katonta,rchj evk spei,rhj th/j kaloume,nhj VItalikh/j( euvsebh.j kai. fobou,menoj to.n qeo.n su.n panti. tw/| oi;kw| auvtou/( poiw/n evlehmosu,naj polla.j tw/| law/| kai. deo,menoj tou/ qeou/ dia. panto,j, now there was a certain man in Caesarea, Cornelius by name, a centurion of a band called the Italian band, a devout man and one that feared God with all his house, who gave much alms to the people and prayed to God alway. The four participles in this sentence are all Adjective Participles, describing their subject. This is especially clear in the case of fobou,menoj, which is joined by kai. to the adjective euvsebh.j. For other similar examples see Col. 1:21; Jas. 2:15; see also examples under the following sections.
421. The Adjective Participle may be used attributively or predicatively. When used attributively it may be either restrictive or explanatory.

422. The Restrictive Attributive Participle. An attributive Adjective Participle may be used to define or identify its subject, pointing out what person or thing is meant. It is then equivalent to a restrictive relative clause. Cf. 295.

John 6:50; ou-to,j evstin o` a;rtoj o` evk tou/ ouvranou/ katabai,nwn, this is the bread which cometh down out of heaven.

Jude 17; mnh,sqhte tw/n r`hma,twn tw/n proeirhme,nwn u`po. tw/n avposto,lwn tou/ kuri,ou h`mw/n VIhsou/ Cristou/, remember the words which have been spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ.

423. The subject of the Restrictive Attributive Participle is often omitted. The participle is then an Adjective Participle used substantively. Such a participle usually has the article, but not invariably. BA. 966; G. 1560.
Matt. 10:37o` filw/n pate,ra h' mhte,ra u`pe.r evme. ouvk e;stin mou a;xioj, he that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me.

Acts 5:14; proseti,qento pisteu,ontej tw/| kuri,w|( plh,qh avndrw/n te kai. gunaikw/n, believers were added to the Lord, multitudes both of men and women.

Acts 10:35; avllV evn panti. e;qnei o` fobou,menoj auvto.n kai. evrgazo,menoj dikaiosu,nhn dekto.j auvtw/| evstin, but in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is acceptable to him.

Rev. 1:3; maka,rioj o` avnaginw,skwn kai. oi` avkou,ontej tou.j lo,gouj th/j profhtei,aj kai. throu/ntej ta. evn auvth/| gegramme,na, blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things which are written therein.

424. A noun without the article, or an indefinite pronoun, is sometimes limited by a participle with the article. The article in this case does not make the noun strictly definite. The person or thing referred to is placed within the class characterized by the action denoted by the participle, and the attention is directed to some one or to certain ones of that class, who are not, however, more specifically identified. Nearly the same meaning is expressed by a participle without the article, or on the other hand by a relative clause limiting an indefinite substantive. For classical examples of this usage see WM p. 136; WT. pp. 109 f.
Col. 2:8; ble,pete mh, tij u`ma/j e;stai o` sulagwgw/n dia. th/j filosofi,aj, take heed lest there shall be any one that maketh spoil of you through his philosophy. See also Acts 5:17; l0:41; Gal. 1:7.
425. A neuter participle with the article is sometimes equivalent to an abstract noun. It is then limited by a genitive like any other abstract noun. HA. 966, b.; G. 1562.
Phil. 3:8dia. to. u`pere,con th/j gnw,sewj Cristou/ VIhsou/ tou/ kuri,ou mou, because of the excellency [superiority] of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord. See also the similar use of neuter adjectives in Rom. 2:4; 1 Cor. 1:25; Phil. 4:5; Heb. 6:17. WM. pp.294f.; WT. pp.234 f.
426. The Explanatory Attributive Participle. An attributive Adjective Participle may be used to describe a person or thing already known or identified. It is then equivalent to an explanatory relative clause. Cf. 295.
2 Tim. 1:8, 9kata. du,namin qeou/( tou/ sw,santoj h`ma/j kai. kale,santoj klh,sei a`gi,a, according to the power of God; who saved us, and called us with a holy calling.

1 Thess. 1:10; VIhsou/n to.n r`uo,menon h`ma/j evk th/j ovrgh/j th/j evrcome,nhj, Jesus, which deilvereth us from the wrath to come. In this example r`uo,menon is explanatory, evrcome,nhj is restrictive. See also Acts 20:32; Heb. 7:9.

427. An Attributive Participle when used to limit a noun which has the article, stands in the so-called attributive position, i.e. between the article and the noun, or after an article following the noun; but when the participle is limited by an adverbial phrase, this phrase may stand between the article and the noun, and the participle without the article follow the noun. It thus results that all the following orders are possible:
(1) article, participle, modifier of the participle, noun;
(2) art., mod., part., noun;
(3) art., mod., noun, part.;
(4) art., part., noun, mod.;
(5) art., noun, art., mod., part.;
(6) art, noun, art., part, mod. See Professor Char1es Short's on The Order of Words in Attic Greek Prose, in Yonge's English-Greek pp. xlix. f.; K. 464,8; HA. 667, a.

Acts 13:32; kai. h`mei/j u`ma/j euvaggelizo,meqa th.n pro.j tou.j pate,raj evpaggeli,an genome,nhn, and we bring you of the promise made unto the fathers.  See also Acts 12:10; 26:4, 6; Heb. 2:2; and specially Rom. 2:27, where h` evk fu,sewj avkrobusti,a to.n no,mon telou/sa should doubtless be rendered, the ncircumcision which by nature fulfils the law (cf. v. 14).

428. An Attributive Participle equivalent to a relative clause, may like a relative clause convey a subsidiary idea of cause, purpose, condition, or concession (cf. 294, 296 ff., 317 ff.). It then partakes of the nature of both the Adjective Participle and the Adverbial Participle. Cf. 434.

Rom. 3:5; mh. a;dikoj o` qeo.j o` evpife,rwn th.n ovrgh,n, is God unrighteous, who [because he] visiteth with wrath?

Matt. 10:39; o` eu`rw.n th.n yuch.n auvtou/ avpole,sei auvth,n( kai. o` avpole,saj th.n yuch.n auvtou/ e[neken evmou/ eu`rh,sei auvth,n, he that findeth his life shall lose it, and he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it. See also vss. 37, 40, 41; cf. vss. 38, 42, and Luke 14:26.

429. The Predicative Adjective Participle. A participle may be used as the predicate of the verb eivmi, or other copulative verb.
Matt. 3:15; ou[tw ga.r pre,pon evsti.n h`mi/n plhrw/sai pa/san dikaiosu,nhn, for thus it is becoming for us to fulfil all righteousness.

Gal. 1:22; h;mhn de. avgnoou,menoj tw/| prosw,pw| tai/j evkklhsi,aij th/j VIoudai,aj, and I was unknown by face unto the churches of Judea.

Rev. 1:18; kai. evgeno,mhn nekro.j kai. ivdou. zw/n eivmi eivj tou.j aivw/naj tw/n aivw,nwn, and I became dead, and behold, I am alive for evermore.

430. The Predicative Participle always stands in the so-called predicative position, i.e. not in attributive position,
which is between the article and its noun or after an article following the noun. Cf. 427.

431. Under the head of the Predicative Participle belong those Present and Perfect Participles which, with the Present, Imperfect, and Future of the verb, form periphrastic Presents, Imperfects, Perfects, Pluperfects, Futures, and Future Perfects. Cf. 20, 34, 71, 84, 91, 97; G.MT. 45, 830, 831; B. pp. 308-313; S. pp. 131ff.  See Rev. 1:18; Matt. 27:33; Mark 2:18; Luke 1:21; 13:10; Jas. 5:15; 2 Cor. 9:3; Luke 2:26; John 13:5; Matt. 18:18.

432. To the Greek mind there was doubtless a distinction of thought between the participle which retained its adjective force and its distinctness from the copula, and that which was so joined with the copula as to be felt as an element of a compound tense form. This distinction can usually be perceived by us; yet in the nature of the case there will occur instances which it will be difficult to assign with certainty to one class or the other. Since, moreover, an Adjective Participle used substantively without the article may stand in the predicate, this gives rise to a third possibility. A participle without the article standing in the predicate is therefore capable of three explanations:

(a) It may be an Attributive Participle used substantively.  So probably

Mark 10:22; h=n ga.r e;cwn kth,mata polla,for he was one that had great possessions. See also John 18:30.

(b) It may be a Predicative Participle retaining its adjective force. So probably the examples under 429, especially Gal. 1:22.

(c) It may form with the copula a periphrastic verb-form.

Luke 5:17; evge,neto evn mia/| tw/n h`merw/n kai. auvto.j h=n dida,skwn, and it came to pass on one of those days that he was teaching.

433. An Adjective Participle used substantively with the article may of course occur as a predicate with a copula. This, however, is not properly a Predicative Participle. The presence of the article makes its use as a noun easily evident. The participle without the article may be as really substantive (432, a); but is not so easily distinguished as such.
Luke 7:19; su. ei= o` evrco,menoj, art thou he that cometh? See also Luke 16:15; 22:28.