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MOODS IN CONCESSIVE SENTENCES.

278. A concessive clause is a protasis that states a supposition the fulfilment of which is thought of or represented as unfavorable to the fulfilment of the apodosis.

The force of a concessive sentence is thus very different from that of a conditional sentence. The latter represents the fulfilment of the apodosis as conditioned on the fulfilment of the protasis; the former represents the apodosis as fullilled in spite of the fulfilment of the protasis. Yet there are eases in which by the weakening of the characteristic force of each construction, or by the complexity of the elements expressed by the protasis, the two usages approach so near to each other as to make distinction between them difficult.

In Gal. 1:8, e.g., the fulfilment of the elenient of the protasis expressed in parV o] euvhggelisa,meqa is favorable to the fulfilment of the apodosis avna,qema e;stw, and the clause is so far forth conditional. But the element expressed in h`mei/j h' a;ggeloj evx ouvranou/ is unfavorable to the fulfilment of the apodosis, and the clause is so far forth concessive. It might be resolved into two clauses, thus, If any one should preach unto you any gospel other than that we preached unto you [let him be anathema] yea, though we or an angel from heaven so preach, let him be anathema.

279. A concessive clause is commonly introduced by  eiv (eva,n) kai, or kai. eiv (eva,n). But a clause introduced by   eiv or eva,n alone may also be in thought concessive, though the concessive element is not emphasized in the form. Matt. 26:33 (cf. Mark 14:29); Mark 14:31 (cf. Matt. 26:35).

280eiv (eva,n) kai,  concessive in the New Testament generally introduces a supposition conceived of as actually fulfilled or likely to be fulfilled. See examples under 284, 285. Yet, in concessive as well as in conditional clauses (cf. 282), kai, may belong not to the whole clause but to the word next after it, having an intensive force, and suggesting that the supposition is in some sense or respect an extreme one, e.g., especially improbable or especially unfavorable to the fulfilment of the apodosis. So probably Mark 14:29.

281kai. eiv (eva,n)  concessive occurs somewhat rarely in the New Testament. See Matt. 26:35; John 8:16; 1 Cor. 8:5; Gal. 1:8; 1 Pet. 3:1 (but cf. WH.). The force of the kai, is apparently intensive, representing the supposition as actually or from a rhetorical point of view an extreme case, improbable in itself, or specially unfavorable to the fulfilment of the apodosis.

REM. Paley, Greek Particles, p. 31, thus distinguishes time force of eiv kai, and kai. eiv "generally with this difference, that eiv kai, implies an admitted fact 'even though,' kai. eiv a somewhat improbable supposition; 'even if.'" "See other statements and references in Th. eiv III. 7; and especially J. 861. It should be observed that a concessive supposition may be probable or improbable; it is not this or that that makes it concessive, but the fact that its fulfilment is unfavorable to the fulfilment of the apodosis.

282. Carefully to be distinguished from the cases of  kai. eiv (eva,n) and eiv (eva,n) kai, concessive are those in which eiv (eva,n)  is conditional and kai, means and (Matt. 11:14; Luke 6:32, 33, 34; John 8:55, etc.), or also (Luke 11:18; 2 Cor. 11:15), or is simply intensive, emphasizing the following word and suggesting a supposition in some sense extreme (1 Cor. 4:7; 7:11). Such a supposition is not necessarily unfavorable to the fulfilment of the apodosis, and hence may be conditional however extreme. Cf. 280.

283. Moods and Tenses in Concessive Clauses. In their use of moods and tenses concessive clauses follow in general the rules for conditional clauses. The variety of usage is in the New Testament, however, much less in the case of concessive clauses than of conditional clauses.

284. Concessive clauses of the class corresponding to the first class of conditional sentences are most frequent in the New Testament. The event referred to in the concessive clause is in general not contingent, but conceived of as actual.

2 Cor. 7:8; o[ti eiv kai. evlu,phsa u`ma/j evn th/| evpistolh/|( ouv metame,lomai, for, though I made you sorry with my epistle, I do not regret it. See also Luke 18:4; 2 Cor. 4:16; 7:12; 11:6; 12:11; Phil. 2:17; Col. 2:5; Heb. 6:9.
285. Concessive clauses referring to the future occur in two forms.

    (a) They take eiv kai,  or eiv, and a Future Indicative referring to what is regarded as certain or likely to occur. In logical force this construction is closely akin to that discussed under 246.

Luke 11:8; eiv kai. ouv dw,sei auvtw/| avnasta.j dia. to. ei=nai fi,lon auvtou/( dia, ge th.n avnai,deian auvtou/ evgerqei.j dw,sei auvtw/| o[swn crh,|zei, though he will not rise and give him because he is his friend, yet because of his importunity he will arise and give him as many as he needeth. See also Matt. 26:33; Mark 14:29.
    (b) They take eva,nkai,, kai. eva,n, or eva,n, with the Subjunctive referring to a future possibility, or what is rhetorically conceived to be possible. Kai. eva,n introduces an extreme case, usually one which is represented as highly improbable.
Gal. 6:1;   eva.n kai. prolhmfqh/| a;nqrwpoj e;n tini paraptw,mati( u`mei/j oi` pneumatikoi. katarti,zete to.n toiou/ton evn pneu,mati prau<thtoj, even if a man be overtaken in any trespass, ye which are spiritual, restore such a one in a spirit of meekness.

Gal. 1:8avlla. kai. eva.n h`mei/j h' a;ggeloj evx ouvranou/ euvaggeli,zhtai Îu`mi/nÐ parV o] euvhggelisa,meqa u`mi/n( avna,qema e;stw, but even if we, or an angel from hearen, preach unto you any gospel other than that which we preached unto you, let him he anathema. See also Luke 22:67, 68; John 8:16; 10:38; Rom. 9:27.

REM. The apodosis after a concessive protasis referring to the future, sometimes has a Present Indicative, affirming what is true and will still he true though the supposition of the protasis he fulfilled. See John 8:14; 1 Cor. 9:16. Cf. 263.

286. The New Testament furnishes no clear instance of a concessive clause corresponding to the fourth class of conditional clauses. In 1 Pet. 3:14, eiv kai. pa,scoite dia. dikaiosu,nhn( maka,rioi, the use of kai. hefore pa,scoite suggests that the writer has in mind that suffering is apparently opposed to blessedness. Yet it is probable that he intends to affirm that blessedness comes, not in spite of, but through, suffering for righteousness’ sake. (On the thought cf. Matt. 5:10 f.) Thus the protasis suggests, even intentionally, a concession, but is, strictly speaking, a true causal conditional clause. Cf. 282.

287. The New Testament instances of concessive clauses corresponding to the fifth class of conditional clauses are few, and the concessive force is not strongly marked. See 2 Tim. 2:5 (first clause) under 260; 2 Tim. 2:13.

288. Concessive clauses in English are introduced by though, although, and even if, occasionally by if alone. Even if introduces an improbable supposition or one especially unfavorable to the fulfilment of the apodosis. Though and although with the Indicative usually imply an admitted fact.  With the Subjunctive, and Potential, with the Present Indicative in the sense of a Future, and with a Past tense of the indicative in conditions contrary to fact, though and although have substantially the same force as even ifEven if thus corresponds in force very nearly to kai. eiv; though and although to eiv kai..