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234 235 236 237


MOODS IN CLAUSES OF RESULT.

234. A consecutive clause is one which expresses the result, actual or potential, of the action stated in the principal clause or a preceding sentence. In the New Testament consecutive clauses are introduced by w[ste. HA. 927; G. 1449.

235. A consecutive clause commonly takes either the Indicative or the Infinitive. The Indicative properly expresses the actual result produced by the action previously mentioned, the Infinitive the result which the action of the principal verb tends or is calculated to produce. Since, however, an actual result may always be conceived of as that which the cause in question is calculated or adapted to produce, the Infinitive may be used when the result is obviously actual. Thus if senselessness tends to credulity, one may say  ou[twj avno,htoi, evste w[ste to. avdu,naton pisteu,ete or ou[twj avno,htoi, evste w[ste to. avdu,naton pisteu,ein, with little difference of meaning, though strictly the latter represents believing the impossible simply as the measure of the folly, while the former represents it as the actual result of such folly. G.MT. 582, 583; HA. 927; G. 1450, 1451.

The use of the Infinitive is the older idiom. Attic writers show on the whole a tendency to an increased use of the Indicative, Aristophanes and Xenophon, e.g., using it more frequently than the Infinitive. See Gild. A.J. P. vii. 161-175; xxv. 240-242. But in the New Testament the Infinitive greatly predominates, occurring fifty times as against twenty-one instances of the Indicative, but one of which is in a clause clearly subordinate.

On w[ste introducing a principal clause see 237. On different conceptions of result, and the use of the Infinitive to express result, see 369-371.

236. The Indicative with w[ste expresses actual result.

John 3:16; Ou[twj ga.r hvga,phsen o` qeo.j to.n ko,smon( w[ste to.n ui`o.n to.n monogenh/ e;dwken, for God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son.
REM. With John 3:16, which is the only clear instance in the New Testament of w[ste with the Indicative so closely joined to what precedes as to constitute a subordinate clause, is usually reckoned also Gal. 2:13.

237. The clause introduced by w[ste is sometimes so disjoined front the antecedent sentence expressing the causal fact that it becomes an independent sentence. In such cases w[ste has the meaning therefore, or accordingly, and the verb introduced by it may be in any form capable of standing iii a principal clause. HA. 927, a; G. 1454.

Mark 2:28; w[ste ku,rio,j evstin o` ui`o.j tou/ avnqrw,pou kai. tou/ sabba,tou, so that the Son of man is lord even of the sabbath.

I Cor. 5:8; w[ste e`orta,zwmen, wherefore let us keep the feast.

1 Thess. 4:18; w[ste parakalei/te avllh,louj evn toi/j lo,goij tou,toij, wherefore comfort one another with these words.