228 229 230 231 232 233


228. A causal clause is one which gives either the cause or the reason of the fact stated in the principal clause. Causal clauses are introduced by o[ti, dio,ti, evpei, evpeidh,, evpeidh,per evfv w|-, etc. HA. 995 G 1505.

229. Moods and Tenses in Causal Clauses. The moods and tenses are used in causal clauses with the same force as in principal clauses.

John 14:19;  o[ti evgw. zw/ kai. u`mei/j zh,sete, because I live, ye shall live also.

1 Cor. 14:12; evpei. zhlwtai, evste pneuma,twn( pro.j th.n oivkodomh.n th/j evkklhsi,aj zhtei/te i[na perisseu,hte, since ye are zealous  of spiritual gifts, seek that ye may abound unto the edifying of the church. See also Luke 1:1; Acts 15:24; Rom. 5:12.

230. From the significance of a causal clause it naturally results that its verb is usually an Indicative affirming a fact. Any form, however, which expresses or implies either qualified or unqualified assertion may stand after a causal conjunction. Thus we find, e.g., a rhetorical question, or an apodosis of a conditional sentence. In the latter case the protasis may be omitted. In the following instances all three of these phenomena coincide; the causal clause is an apodosis, its protasis is omitted, it is expressed in the form of a rhetorical question.
1 Cor. 15:29; evpei. ti, poih,sousin oi` baptizo,menoi u`pe.r tw/n nekrw/n, else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead? i.e., since [if the  dead are not raised] they that are baptized for the dead are baptized to no purpose.

Heb. 10:2; evpei. ouvk a'n evpau,santo prosfero,menai, else would they not hare ceased to be offered? i.e., since [if what was said above were not true] they irould hare ceased to be offered. Cf. also Acts 5:38.

231. From the nature of the causal clause as making an assertion, it results that it is easily disjoined from the clause which states the fact of which it gives the cause or reason, and becomes an independent sentence.
Matt. 6:5; kai. o[tan proseu,chsqe( ouvk e;sesqe w`j oi` u`pokritai,( o[ti filou/sin evn tai/j sunagwgai/j kai. evn tai/j gwni,aij tw/n plateiw/n e`stw/tej proseu,cesqai, and when ye pray, ye shall not be as the hypocrites: because they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets (cf. 6:16, where in a closely similar sentence, ga,r is used instead of o[ti). See also Luke 11:32; 1 Cor. 1:22, and cf. v. 21, where the same conjunction  evpeidh, introduces a subordinate clause.
232. The distinction between a subordinate causal clause and an independent sentence affirming a cause or reason is usually one of the degree of emphasis on the causal relation between the two facts. When the chief thing asserted is the existence of the causal relation, as happens, e.g., when one fact or the other is already present as a fact before the mind, the causal clause is manifestly subordinate. When the emphasis is upon the separate assertions as assertions, rather than on the relation of the facts asserted, the causal clause easily becomes an independent sentence. Thus in Rev. 3:16, because thou art lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I will spew thee out of my mouth, the causal clause is subordinate. So also in John 16:3, and these things they will do, because they have not known the Father nor me, where the words these things refer to an assertion already made, and the intent of the sentence is to state why they will do these things. See also John 20:29. On the other hand, in Matt. 6:5; Luke 11:32; 1 Cor. 1:22 (see 231); and in 1 Cor. 15:29; Heb. 10:2 (see 230), the casual clause is evidently independent, and the particles  o[ti, evpei,, evpeidh, have substantially the force of ga,r.

233. Causal relations may also be expressed by a relative clause (294), by an Infinitive with the article governed by dia, (408), and by a participle (439).