392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417
WITH THE ARTICLE
392. The prefixing of the article to the Infinitive tends to the obscuring of its original dative force, while it emphasizes its new substantive character as a noun which can be used in any case. Some of the uses of the Infinitive with the article differ from those without the article only by the greater emphasis on the substantive character of the form. This is the ease with its use as subject and object. Others express nearly the same relations which were expressed by the Infinitive without the article, but with a different thought of the case-relation involved. Thus the use of the Infinitive without the article after adjectives of fitness, worthiness, etc., doubtless sprang originally from the thought of the Infinitive as a dative. The Infinitive with the article after such adjectives is thought of as a genitive, as is evident from the use of the article tou/. The difference in meaning is, however, very slight. Compare the English worthy to receive and worthy of receiving. Still other uses of the Infinitive with the article are wholly new, being developed only after the Infinitive had begun to be used with the article. To this class belongs the use of the Infinitive after prepositions.
REM. The Infinitive with the article being by means of that article practically a declinable noun, the various uses are grouped in the following sections according to cases.
393. The Infinitive with to, as Subject. The Infinitive with the article to, is used as the subject of a finite verb. HA. 959; G. 1542.Matt. 15:20; to. de. avni,ptoij cersi.n fagei/n ouv koinoi/ to.n a;nqrwpon, but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not the man. See also Matt. 20:23; Mark 9:10; 12:33; Rom. 14:21.394. The Infinitive with to, as Object. The Infinitive with the articleto, is used as the object of a transitive verb. This usage is far less common than the object Infinitive without the article. HA. 959; G. 1543.Acts 25:11; ouv paraitou/mai to. avpoqanei/n, I refuse not to die. See also 2 Cor. 8:11; Phil 2:6.395. The Infinitive with the Article, in Apposition. The Infinitive with the article may stand in apposition with a preceding noun or pronoun.Rom. 4:13; ouv ga.r dia. no,mou h` evpaggeli,a tw/| VAbraa.m h' tw/| spe,rmati auvtou( to. klhrono,mon auvto.n ei=nai ko,smou, for not through the law was the promise to Abraham or to his seed, that he should be heir of the world.396. The Infinitive with tw|/. The Infinitive with the article tw/| is used in classical Greek to express cause, manner, means. In the New Testament it is used to express cause. Its only other use is after the preposition evn. HA. 959; G. 1547.
2 Cor. 2:1; e;krina ga.revmautw/| tou/to to. mh. pa,lin evn lu,ph| pro.j u`ma/j evlqei/n, for I determined this for myself, that I would not come again to you with sorrow. See also Ram. 14:13.2 Cor. 2:13;tw/| mh. eu`rei/n me Ti,ton to.n avdelfo,n mou/, because I found not Titus my brother.397. The Infinitive of Purpose with tou/. The Infinitive with the article tou is used to express the purpose of the action or state denoted by the principal verb. HA. 960; G. 1548.Matt. 2:13;me,llei ga.r ~Hrw,|dhj zhtei/n to. paidi,on tou/ avpole,sai auvto,, for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. See also Matt. 24:45; Luke 2:24, 27; Acts 20:18; Phil.3:10.REM. That the Infinitive with tou/ expresses purpose with substantially the same force as the simple Infinitive appears from the joining of the two together by kai,.Luke 2:22, 24;avnh,gagon auvto.n eivj ~Ieroso,luma parasth/sai tw/| kuri,w|( . . . kai. tou/ dou/nai qusi,an, they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord, and to offer a sacrfflce. Cf. also Luke 1:76, 77; 1:79.398. The Infinitive of Result with tou/. The Infinitive with the article tou/ is occasionally used in the New Testament to express conceived result. Cf. 218 and 369-371.Matt. 21:32;u`mei/j de. ivdo,ntej ouvde. metemelh,qhte u[steron tou/ pisteu/sai auvtw/|, and ye, when ye saw it, did not even repent afterward, so as to believe him. See also Acts 7:19; Rom. 7:3; probably also Acts 18:10; cf. Gen. 3:22; 19:21; 34:17, 22; Isa. 5:14.REM. Meyer takes the Infinitive phrase tou/ mh. ei-nai in Rom 7:3 as expressing a divine purpose, and adds that tou/ with the Infinitive never expresses result, not even in Acts 7:19. But this is grammatical purism not justified by the evidence. The uniformly telic force of tou/ with the Infinitive can be maintained only by evasive definition or forced interpretation.
399. The Infinitive with tou/ after Adjectives. The Infinitive with the article tou/ is used with such adjectives as may be limited by a simple Infinitive. HA. 959; G. 1547. Cf. 376.Acts 23:15;e[toimoi, evsmen tou/ avnelei/n auvto,n, we are ready to slay him. See also Luke 24:25.400. The Infinitive with tou/ after Nouns. The Infinitive with the article tou/ is used to limit nouns. The relations thus expressed are very various and are not always easy to define exactly. Instances occur not only, as in classical Greek, of the objective genitive, but also of the genitive of characteristic, the genitive of connection, and the appositional genitive. HA. 959; G. 1547.Heb. 5:12;pa,lin crei,an e;cete tou/ dida,skein u`ma/j, ye have need again that some one teach you.401. The Infinitive with tou/ after Verbs that take the Genitive. The Infinitive with tou/ is used as the object of verbs which take a noun in the genitive as object, especially of verbs of hindering, etc. HA. 959, 963; G. 1547, 1549.
Luke 2:21; kai. o[te evplh,sqhsan h`me,rai ovktw. tou/ peritemei/n auvto.n, and when eight days were fulfilled for circumcising him.
Rom. 11:8; e;dwken auvtoi/j o` qeo.j pneu/ma katanu,xewj( ovfqalmou.j tou/ mh. ble,pein kai. w=ta tou/ mh. avkou,ein, God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that see not, and ears that hear not. See also Luke 1:57, 74; 2:6; 10:19; 21:22; 22:6; Acts 14:9; 20:3; Rom. 1:24; 1 Cor. 9:10; 2 Cor. 8:11; 1 Pet. 4:17; cf. Gen. 16:3; 1 Sam. 2:24.Luke 1:9;e;lace tou/ qumia/sai, it was his lot (prop. he obtained by lot) to burn incense.402. In classical Greek, verbs of hindering are followed by three constructions, (a) Infinitive without the article, (b) Infinitive with tou/, (c) Infinitive with to,. Mh, may be used or omitted with the Infinitive without difference of meaning. HA. 963; G. 1549, 1551; G.MT. 791 (exx.). In the New Testament, all these constructions occur except that with to. mh,. See Matt. 19:14; Rom. 15:22; 1 Cor. 14:39; Gal. 5:7; Acts 10:47.
2 Cor. 1:8; w[ste evxaporhqh/nai h`ma/j kai. tou/ zh/n, insomuch that we despaired even of life.
Rom. 15:22; Dio. kai. evnekopto,mhn ta. polla. tou/ evlqei/n pro.j u`ma/j, wherefore also I was hindered these many times from coming to you. Cf. Gen. 34:19; Ps. Sol. 2:28, 29.
403. The Infinitive with tou/ mh, after verbs of hindering is closely akin to the Infinitive of Result. Cf. Luke 24:16; Acts 14:18.
REM. Meyer’s interpretation of tou/ mh. evpignw/nai auvto,n in Luke 24:16 as expressing a divine purpose (the English translation does not correctly represent the meaning of the German original), is not required by New Testament usage. The Greek most naturally means, Their eyes were held from knowing him. Cf. 398, Rem.
404. The Infinitive with tou/ as Subject or Object. The Infinitive with tou/ is used even as the subject of a finite verb or as the object of transitive verbs which regularly take a direct object. This is a wide departure from classical usage, and indicates that the sense of the genitive character of the article tou/ before the Infinitive was partly lost in later Greek. B. p. 270; WM. pp. 411f.; WT. pp. 327 f.Acts 27:1; evkri,qh tou/ avpoplei/n h`ma/j eivj th.n VItali,an, it was determined that we should sail for Italy. See also Luke 4:10; 5:7; Acts 3:12; 10:25; 15:20; 21:12; 23:20; 1 Sam. 12:23; Eccl. 4:13, 17; 1 Macc. 3:15.405. The origin of this use of the Infinitive with tou/ is perhaps in such usages as appear in Luke 17:1; 1 Cor. 16:4; and still more in such as that in Luke 4:10. In Luke 17:1 the genitive is apparently suggested by the idea of hindering or avoiding in the adjective avne,ndekton; in 1 Cor. 16:4 it is the adjective a;xion which gives occasion to the genitive; but in both cases the Infinitive seems to be logically the subject of the copulative verb, the adjective being the predicate. Whether this construction represents the thought in the mind of the writer, or whether the expression is rather to be regarded as an impersonal one, the Infinitive being dependent on the predicate adjective, cannot with confidence be decided. Such usages as Luke 4:10 and 5:7 doubtless owe their origin to the same mental process by which a clause introduced by i[na came to stand as the object of a verb of exhorting. Ps. Sol. 2:28 compared with Luke 12:45 is also suggestive. It is doubtless the idea of hindering in croni,zw that gives rise to the genitive in the former passage; in the latter the Infinitive is a direct object.
406. The Infinitive with the Article governed by Prepositions. The Infinitive with the article to,, tou/, tw|/ is governed by prepositions. HA. 959; G. 1546.
The prepositions so used in the New Testament are: with the accusative, dia,, eivj, meta,, pro,j; with the genitive, avnti,, dia,, evk, e[neken, e[wj, pro,; with the dative, evn.Mark 4:6; kai. dia. to. mh. e;cein r`i,zan evxhra,nqh, and because it had no root, it withered away.407. These prepositions vary greatly in frequency in the New Testament. Eivj occurs with the Infinitive 63 times (Infinitives 72); evn 52 times (Infinitives 56); dia, with the Accusative 27 times (Infinitives 31); meta, 15 times; pro,j 12 times; pro, 9 times; each of the others once (W.H. text). See Votaw, Infinitive in Biblical Greek, p. 20; cf. G.MT. 800-802.
1 Thess. 3:5; e;pemya eivj to. gnw/nai th.n pi,stin u`mw/n, I sent that I might know your faith.
Mark 14:28; avlla. meta. to. evgerqh/nai, me proa,xw u`ma/j eivj th.n Galilai,an, howbeit, after I am raised up, I will go before you into Galilee.
Matt. 6:1; prose,cete Îde.Ð th.n dikaiosu,nhn u`mw/n mh. poiei/n e;mprosqen tw/n avnqrw,pwn pro.j to. qeaqh/nai auvtoi/j, take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men, to be seen of them.
Gal. 3:23; pro. tou/ de. evlqei/n th.n pi,stin u`po. no,mon evfrourou,meqa, but before faith came, we were kept in ward under the law.
Luke 24:51; kai. evge,neto evn tw/| euvlogei/n auvto.n auvtou.j die,sth avpV auvtw/n, and it came to pass, while he blessed them, he parted from them.
408. Dia, governing the Infinitive with to, denotes cause, and is nearly equivalent to o[ti or dio,ti with the Indicative, differing in that the Infinitive gives in itself no indication of the time of the action.Jas. 4:2, 3; ouvk e;cete dia. to. mh. aivtei/sqai u`ma/j( aivtei/te kai. ouv lamba,nete( dio,ti kakw/j aivtei/sqe, ye have not, because ye ask not. Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss.In Mark 5:4 dia, with the Infinitive expresses the evidence rather than the cause strictly so called.
409. Eivj governing the Infinitive with to, most commonly expresses purpose. It is employed with special frequency by Paul, but occurs also in Heb., 1 Pet., and Jas.Rom. 8:29; o[ti ou]j proe,gnw( kai. prow,risen summo,rfouj th/j eivko,noj tou/ ui`ou/ auvtou/( eivj to. ei=nai auvto.n prwto,tokon evn polloi/j avdelfoi/j, for whom he foreknew, he also preordained to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the first-born among many brethren. See also Rom. 1:11; 3:26; 7:4; Eph. 1:12; Phil. 1:10; Heb. 2:17; Jas. 1:18; 1 Pet. 3:7.410. Eivj with the Infinitive is also used, like the simple Infinitive, to represent an indirect object. Cf. 368.1 Cor. 11:22;mh. ga.r oivki,aj ouvk e;cete eivj to. evsqi,ein kai. pi,nein, what? have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? See also Matt. 20:19; 26:2.411. Eivj with the Infinitive also expresses tendency, measure of effect or result, conceived or actual.Heb. 11:3; pi,stei noou/men kathrti,sqai tou.j aivw/naj r`h,mati qeou/( eivj to. mh. evk fainome,nwn to. blepo,menon gegone,nai, by faith we understand that the worlds have been framed by the word of God, so that what is seen hath not been made out of things which do appear. See also Rom. 12:3; 2 Cor. 8:6; Gal 3:17; 1 Thess. 2:16.Eivj to. evsqi,en in 1 Cor. 8:10 either expresses measure of effect or is the indirect object of oivkokodomhqh,setai. Eivj to. ei=nai in Rom. 1:20 might appropriately he interpreted as expressing purpose but for the causal clause which follows. This clause could be joined to an expression of purpose only by supposing an ellipsis of some such expression as kai. ou[twj eivsi,n, and seems therefore to require that eivj to. ei=nai be interpreted as expressing result.
REM. Meyer’s dictum (see on Rom. 1:20) that eivj with the articular Infinitive is always telic, is, like his similar dictum respecting tou/ with the Infinitive, a case of grammatical purism, not justified by the evidence.
412. Eivj with the Infinitive is also used, like i[na with the Subjunctive, or the simple Infinitive, as the direct object of verbs of exhorting, etc. 1 Thess. 2:12; 3:10; 2 Thess. 2:2.
413. Eivj with the Infinitive is still further used, like the simple Infinitive, to limit an adjective, as in Jas. 1:19, or a noun, as in Phil. 1:28.
414. Pro,j governing the Infinitive with to, usually expresses purpose; it is occasionally used with the sense, with reference to.Matt. 6:1; prose,cete Îde.Ð th.n dikaiosu,nhn u`mw/n mh. poiei/n e;mprosqen tw/n avnqrw,pwn pro.j to. qeaqh/nai auvtoi/j, but take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men, to be seen of them.415. VEn governing the Infinitive with tw|/ is most commonly temporal, but occasionally expresses other relations, such as manner, means, or content. This construction is especially frequent in Luke and Acts.
Matt. 26:12; balou/sa ga.r au[th to. mu,ron tou/to evpi. tou/ sw,mato,j mou pro.j to. evntafia,sai me evpoi,hsen, for in that she poured this ointment upon my body, she did it to prepare me for burial. See also Matt. 5:28; 13:30; 2 Cor. 3:13; Eph. 6:11, etc. (purpose); Luke 18:1 (reference).Luke 8:5; kai. evn tw/| spei,rein auvto.n o] me.n e;pesen para. th.n o`do,n, and as he sowed, some fell by the way side.416. The force of the other prepositions used with the Infinitive scarcely needs special definition, the meaning of each being in general the same as that of the same preposition governing nouns. Respecting the force of the tenses after prepositions, see 104-109.
Acts 3:26; u`mi/n prw/ton avnasth,saj o` qeo.j to.n pai/da auvtou/ avpe,steilen auvto.n euvlogou/nta u`ma/j evn tw/| avpostre,fein e[kaston avpo. tw/n ponhriw/n @u`mw/n#, unto you first God, having raised up his Servant, sent him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from your iniquities. See also Luke 1:8; Acts 9:3; 11:15; Ps. Sol. 1:1 (temporal); Luke 12:15; Acts 4:30; Heb. 2:8; 3:12, 15; Ps. Sol 1:3; Gen. 19:16; 34:15.
417. Concerning the Infinitive without the article governed by prepositions, see G. MT. 803, and cf. Gen. 10:19. The Infinitive gi,nesqai in Acts 4:30, which is by R.V.. taken as the object of do,j is more probably governed by the preposition evn. It is however not strictly without the article, the tw|/ which precedes evktei,nein belonging in effect also to gi,nesqai.