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II. CONDITIONAL RELATIVE SENTENCES.

296. An indefinite relative clause, since it refers to a sup-posed event or instance, implies a condition, and is therefore called a conditional relative clause. HA. 912; G. 1428.
Mark 10:43; o]j a'n qe,lh| me,gaj gene,sqai evn u`mi/n e;stai u`mw/n dia,konoj, whosoever would become great among you, shall be your minister. Cf. Mark 9:35; ei; tij qe,lei prw/toj ei=nai( e;stai pa,ntwn e;scatoj kai. pa,ntwn dia,konoj. It is evident that the relative clause in the former passage is as really conditional as the conditional clause in the latter.
297.  Since a conditional relative clause implies a supposition, conditional relative sentences may be classified according to the nature of the implied supposition, as other conditional sentences are classified according to the expressed supposition.

298 The implied supposition may be particular or general.  When the relative clause refers to a particular supposed event or instance, and the principal clause conditions its assertion on the occurrence of this event, the implied supposition is particular. When the relative clause refers to any occurrence of an act of a certain class, and the principal clause states what is or was wont to take place in any instance of an act of the class supposed, the implied supposition is general.

Thus in the sentence, The act which he believes to be wrong he will not do, if reference is had to a particular occasion, or to one made particular in thought, so that the sentence means, If on that occasion, or a certain occasion, he believes an act to be wrong, he will not do it, the implied supposition is particular. But in the sentence, Whatever act he [in any instance] believes to be wrong, he does not [is not wont to] do, the implied supposition is general. Cf. 239.

299  The distinction between the relative clause implying a particular supposition and the relative clause implying a general supposition is not marked either in Greek or in English by any uniform difference in the pronouns employed either in the relative clause or in the antecedent clause. The terms particular and general apply not to the relative or its antecedent, but to the implied supposition. Thus if one say, He received whatever profit was made, meaning, If  [in a certain transaction] any profit was made, he received it, the relative clause implies a particular condition. But if one use the same words. meaning, If [in any transaction] profit was mode, [it was wont to happen that] he received it, the implied condition is general. So also in John 1:33, upon whomsoever thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and abiding upon him , the same is he that baptizeth with the Holy Spirit, we have not a general principle applying to any one of many cases, but a supposition and an assertion referring to a particular case. But in 1 John 3:22, whatsoever we ask, we receive of him. the supposition refers to any instance of asking, and is general.

Whether the implied supposition is particular or general can usually be most clearly discerned from the nature of the Principal clause. If this states what is true in a particular case, or expresses a command with reference to a particular case, the implied supposition is particular.  If it states a general principle, or expresses a general injunction which applies in any instance of the event described in the relative clause, the implied supposition is usually general. Cf. 240.

300. Of the six classes of conditional relative sentences found in classical Greek, but four occur in the New Testament, and these with considerable deviation from classical usage. They are designated here according to the kind of condition implied in the relative clause.

301. A. Simple Present or Past Particular Supposition. The relative clause states a particular supposition which refers to the present or past. It has a present or past tense of the Indicative. The principal clause may have any form of the verb. HA. 914, A; G. 1430.

Rom. 2:12; o[soi ga.r avno,mwj h[marton( avno,mwj kai. avpolou/ntai( kai. o[soi evn no,mw| h[marton( dia. no,mou kriqh,sontai, for as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law: and as many as have sinned under law shall be judged by law.

Phil. 4:8; to. loipo,n( avdelfoi,( o[sa evsti.n avlhqh/( o[sa semna,( o[sa di,kaia( o[sa a`gna,( o[sa prosfilh/( o[sa eu;fhma( ei; tij avreth. kai. ei; tij e;painoj( tau/ta logi,zesqe. See also 2 Cor. 2:10.

REM. Respecting the use of the negatives mh, and ouv in relative clauses of this class, see 469, 470.

302.  B. Supposition contrary to Fact. The relative clause states a supposition which refers to the present or past implying that it is not, or was not, fulfilled. It has a past tense of the Indicative. The principal clause has a past tense of the Indicative with a;n. HA. 915; G. 1433.

No instance occurs in the New Testament.

303. C. Future Supposition with More Probability.  The relative clause states a supposition which refers to the future, suggesting some probability of its fulfilment. It has the Subjunctive with a;n. The principal clause may have any form referring to future time. HA. 916; G. 1434.

Matt. 5:19; o]j dV a'n poih,sh| kai. dida,xh|( ou-toj me,gaj klhqh,setai evn th/| basilei,a| tw/n ouvranw/n, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

Mark 13:11; kai. o[tan a;gwsin u`ma/j paradido,ntej( mh. promerimna/te ti, lalh,shte( avllV o] eva.n doqh/| u`mi/n evn evkei,nh| th/| w[ra| tou/to lalei/te\ ouv ga,r evste u`mei/j oi` lalou/ntej avlla. to. pneu/ma to. a[gion, and when they lead you to Judgment, and deliver you up, be not anxious beforehand what ye shall speak: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye: for it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost. See also Luke 13:25; Rev. 11:7; instances are very frequent in the New Testament.

304. In the New Testament eva.n not infrequently stands in a conditional relative clause instead of the simple a'n. Matt. 7:12; Mark 3:28; Luke 9:57; Acts 2:21, et al. See  WH. II. App. p. 173.

305. The Subjunctive with a'n in a relative clause is in the New Testament usually retained in indirect discourse, or in a sentence having the effect of indirect discourse, even after a past tense. Matt. 14:7; Rev. 12:4. Cf. 251. On Acts 25:16 see 338, 344, Rem. 1.

306. In addition to the relative clause having the Subjunctive with a'n (303), which is the regular form both in classical and New Testament Greek, the following forms of the relative clause also require mention as occurring in the New Testament to express a future supposition with more probability:

307. (a) The Subjunctive without a'n. This is very unusual in classical Greek in relative clauses referring to the future.  In the New Testament also it is rare. Jas. 2:10 probably belongs here; Matt. 10:33 also, if (with Treg. and WH. text) we read  o[stij avrnhshtai, . . . avrnhsomai.

308. (b) The Future Indicative with or without a'n.

Matt. 5:41; o[stij se avggareu,sei mi,lion e[n( u[page metV auvtou/ du,oGowt, whosoever shall compel thee to go one mile, go with him two. See also Matt. 10:32 (cf. v. 33); 18:4 (cf. v. 5); 23:12; Mark 8:35; Luke 12:8, 10; 17:31; Acts 7:7; Rev. 4:9. Cf. WH. II. App. p. 172.
309. (c) The Present Indicative with or without a;n.
Mark 11:25; o[tan sth,kete proseuco,menoi( avfi,ete, whensoever ye stand praying, forgive. See also Matt. 5:39; Luke 12:34; John 12:26; 14:3.
310. There is no distinction in form either in Greek or in English between a relative clause implying a particular supposition, and a relative clause implying a general supposition, when the supposition refers to the future. The difference in thought is the same as that which distinguishes particular and general suppositions referring to the present or past. Cf. 298, 299. In Matt. 26:48, whomsoever I shall kiss, that is he, the supposition is particular, referring to a specific occasion and event. So also in 1 Cor. 16:3. But in Luke 9:4. into whatsoever house ye enter, there abide, and thence depart, the supposition is general, referring to any one of a class of acts. A large part of the conditional relative clauses referring to the future found in the New Testament are apparently general. See, e.g.. Matt. 5:19; 10:14 ; 16:25 ; Mark 11:28 ; Luke 8:18, etc. Yet in many  cases it is  possible to suppose that a particular imagined instance was before the mind of the writer as an illustration of the general class of cases.

311. D. Future Supposition with Less Probability. The relative clause states a supposition which refers to the future, suggesting less probability of its fulfilment than is implied by the Subjunctive with a;n. It has the Optative without a;n. The principal clause has the Optative with a;n. HA. 917; G. 1436.

No instance occurs in the New Testament.

312. E. Present General Supposition. The relative clause refers to any occurrence of a class of acts in the general present, and the principal clause states what is wont to take place in any instance of the act referred to in the relative clause. The relative clause has the Subjunctive with a;n, the principal clause the Present Indicative. HA. 914, B. (1); G. 1431, 1.

1 Cor. 11:28o`sa,kij ga.r eva.n evsqi,hte to.n a;rton tou/ton kai. to. poth,rion pi,nhte( to.n qa,naton tou/ kuri,ou katagge,llete a;crij ou- e;lqh|, for as often as ye eat this bread, and drink the cup, ye proclaim the Lordís death, till he come. See also Matt. 15:2; Mark 10:11; Rev. 9:5.
REM. Concerning the use of eva.n for a;n, see 304.

313. The Present Indicative not infrequently occurs in conditional relative clauses which apparently imply a present general supposition. G.MT. 534. Yet in most such passages in the New Testament, it is possible that a particular imagined instance in the present or future is before the mind as an illustration of the general class of cases. Cf. 301, 309. It is scarcely possible to decide in each ease whether the supposition is particular or general. The difference of meaning is in any case slight.

Luke 14:27 o[stij ouv basta,zei to.n stauro.n e`autou/ kai. e;rcetai ovpi,sw mou( ouv du,natai ei=nai, mou maqhth,j, whosoever doth not bear his own cross and come after me, cannot be my disciple. See also Matt. 10:38; 13:12 (cf. Luke 8:18); Luke 7:17; John 3:8; Rom. 6:16; 9:18; 1 Cor. 15:36, 37; Heb. 12:6.
314. Concerning the similarity of the third and fifth classes of conditional relative clauses, cf. 262. The statements there made respecting ordinary conditional sentences are applicable also to conditional relative sentences. See Mark 8:28, 29 Luke 9:24, 48 1 John 3:22.

315. F. Past General Supposition. The relative clause refers to any occurrence of a certain act or class of acts, and the principal clause states what was wont to take place in any instance of the act referred to in the relative clause. In classical Greek, the relative clause has the Optative without a;n, the principal clause the Imperfect Indicative. HA. 914, B. (2); G. 1431, 2.

In the New Testament, the Optative does not occur in such clauses, the Imperfect or Aorist Indicative with  a;n being used instead. Cf. 26.

Mark 3:11; kai. ta. pneu,mata ta. avka,qarta( o[tan auvto.n evqew,roun( prose,pipton auvtw/| kai. e;krazon, and the unclean spirits, whensoever they beheld him, were wont to fall down before him and cry out. See also Mark 6:56; 11:19; Acts 2:45; 4:35; 1 Cor 12:2; cf. Gen. 2:19; 1 Sam. 2:13,14.
316. In the New Testament, relative clauses conditional in form are sometimes definite in force.
Mark 2:20;  evleu,sontai de. h`me,rai o[tan avparqh/| avpV auvtw/n o` numfi,oj, but days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them. See also Luke 5:35; 13:28; Rev.8:1.