434 435 436 437
438 439 440 441
442 443 444 445
446 447 448 449
450 451 452 453
454 455


434. The Adverbial Participle logically modifies some other verb of the sentence in which it stands, being equivalent to an adverbial phrase or clause denoting time, condition, concession, cause, purpose, means, manner, or attendant circumstance. HA. 969; G. 1563. Thus we find:

435. The Adverbial Participle of Time, equivalent to a temporal clause.

Luke 24:36; tau/ta de. auvtw/n lalou,ntwn auvto.j e;sth evn me,sw| auvtw/n, and as they spake these things, he himself stood in the midst of them.

John 16:8; kai. evlqw.n evkei/noj evle,gxei to.n ko,smon, and he, when he is come, will convict the world.

436. The Adverbial Participle of Condition, equivalent to a conditional clause.
Heb. 2:3; pw/j h`mei/j evkfeuxo,meqa thlikau,thj avmelh,santej swthri,aj, how shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation?

1 Tim. 4:4; o[ti pa/n kti,sma qeou/ kalo,n kai. ouvde.n avpo,blhton meta. euvcaristi,aj lambano,menon, for every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it be received with thanksgiving. See also 1 Cor. 11:29; Gal. 6:9.

437. The Adverbial Participle of Concession, equivalent to a concessive clause. The concessive force is sometimes emphasized by prefixing kai,per or kai, ge to the participle.
Acts 13:28; kai. mhdemi,an aivti,an qana,tou eu`ro,ntej hv|th,santo Pila/ton avnaireqh/nai auvto,n, and though they found no cause of death in him, yet asked they of Pilate that he should be slain.

Heb. 5:8; kai,per w'n ui`o.j( e;maqen avfV w-n e;paqen th.n u`pakoh,n, though he was a Son, yet he learned obedience by the things which he suffered. See also Matt. 14:9; Mark 4:31; Acts 17:27.

438. A concessive participle refers to a fact which is unfavorable to the occurrence of the event denoted by the principal verb. Cf. 278. It should be distinguished from the participle which is merely antithetical. A participle denoting accompanying circumstance, or even condition or cause, may be antithetical. See 1 Cor. 4:12, diwko,menoi avneco,meqa; 2 Cor. 8:9; Gal. 2:3.

439. The Adverbial Participle of Cause, equivalent to a causal clause.

Col. 1:3, 4; euvcaristou/men tw/| qew/| . . . avkou,santej th.n pi,stin u`mw/n evn Cristw/| VIhsou/, we give thanks to God . . . having heard (because we have heard) of your faith in Christ Jesus.

1 Tim. 4:8; h` ga.r swmatikh. gumnasi,a pro.j ovli,gon evsti.n wvfe,limoj( h` de. euvse,beia pro.j pa,nta wvfe,limo,j evstin evpaggeli,an e;cousa zwh/j th/j nu/n kai. th/j mellou,shj, but godliness is profitable for all things, having promise of the life uhich now is, and of that which is to come. See also Matt. 2:3, 10; Acts 9:26.

440. ~Wj prefixed to a Participle of Cause implies that the action denoted by the participle is supposed, asserted, or professed by some one, usually the subject of the principal verb, to be the cause of the action of the principal verb. The speaker does not say whether the supposed or alleged cause actually exists. HA. 978; G. 1574.
1 Cor. 4:18; w`j mh. evrcome,nou de, mou pro.j u`ma/j evfusiw,qhsa,n tinej, but some are puffed up, as though I were not coming to you, i.e. because (as they suppose) I am not coming. See also Acts 23:15, 20; 27:30; 28:19; 1 Pet. 4:12.
441. The origin of this idiom is probably in a clause of manner consisting of  and a finite verb, the latter modified by a Participle of Cause.  Thus w`j kola,zeij me w`j kakopoih,santa, you punish me as having done evil, i.e. you punish me because, as you allege, I have done evil, may have its origin in such a sentence as kola,zeij me w`j kola,zeij tina. kakopoih,santa, you punish me, as you punish one who has (or because he has) done evil. Yet it is not to be supposed that the Greek any more than the English required the supplying of a finite verb after w`j. Such phrases in classical Greek or in the New Testament are, as they stand and without the addition of other words, expressions of cause, the use of w`j indicating that the phrase describes the opinion or assertion of the subject of the sentence rather than of the speaker.

442. The Adverbial Participle of Purpose, equivalent to a final clause. This is usually, but not invariably, in the Future tense.

Acts 8:27; o]j evlhlu,qei proskunh,swn eivj VIerousalh,m, who had come to Jerusalem to worship.

Acts 3:26; avpe,steilen auvto.n euvlogou/nta u`ma/j, he sent him to bless you.

443. The Adverbial Participle of Means. This cannot usually be resolved into a clause.
Matt. 6:27; ti,j de. evx u`mw/n merimnw/n du,natai prosqei/nai evpi. th.n h`liki,an auvtou/ ph/cun e[na, and which of you by being anxious can add one cubit unto his stature? See also Acts 16:16; Heb. 2:18.
444. The Adverbial Participle of Manner, describing the manner in which the action denoted by the verb is done.
Acts 2:13; e[teroi de. diacleua,zontej e;legon o[ti Gleu,kouj memestwme,noi eivsi,n, but others mocking said. See also Luke 19:48.
445. The manner of an action is frequently expressed by w`j with the Participle.
Mark 1:22; kai. evxeplh,ssonto evpi. th/| didach/| auvtou/\ h=n ga.r dida,skwn auvtou.j w`j evxousi,an e;cwn kai. ouvc w`j oi` grammatei/j, for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.

1 Cor. 9:26;  evgw. toi,nun ou[twj tre,cw w`j ouvk avdh,lwj( ou[twj pukteu,w w`j ouvk ave,ra de,rwn\, so fight I as not beating the air.

2 Cor. 5:20; u`pe.r Cristou/ ou=n presbeu,omen w`j tou/ qeou/ parakalou/ntoj diV h`mw/n\ deo,meqa u`pe.r Cristou/( katalla,ghte tw/| qew/|, we are ambassadors therefore on behalf of Christ, as though God were intreatiug by us.

446. When w`j with the participle is used to express manner, the participle itself may be either an Adjective Participle used substantively or an Adverbial Participle of Manner. The origin of such expressions is doubtless, in either case, in a clause of manner consisting of w`j and a finite verb similar to the principal verb, the participle being either the subject of such a verb or an adverbial (or other) limitation of it. Thus dida,skei w`j e;cwn evxousi,an is equivalent to dida,skei w`j e;cwn evxousi,an dida,skei, he teaches as one having authority teaches, or dida,skei w[j tij dida,skei e;cwn evxousi,an, he teaches as one teaches having authority. Yet in neither case is it to be supposed that the Greek, any more than the English, required the supplying of a finite verb after w`j. The phrase as it stood was an expression of manner. That the participle, however, was in some cases still felt as a substantive (Adjective Participle used substantively) seems probable from its being used correlatively with an adjective or noun and from the occasional use of the participle with the article. See Mark 1:22 above; also 1 Cor. 7:25; 2 Cor. 6:9, 10; 1 Pet. 2:16; and cf. Mark 6:34; Luke 22:26, 27. That this is not always the case, but that the participle itself is sometimes adverbial is evident from such cases as 2 Cor. 5:20 (see above, 445).

447. The participle expressing manner or means often denotes the same action as that of the principal verb, describing it from a different point of view. In this case the participle is as respects its tense a (Present or Aorist) Participle of Identical Action (cf. 120, 139), while as respects its modal function it is a participle of manner or means.

Acts 5:30o` qeo.j tw/n pate,rwn h`mw/n h;geiren VIhsou/n o]n u`mei/j dieceiri,sasqe krema,santej evpi. xu,lou, the God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew by hanging him on a tree. See also Acts 9:22; 10:33; l Tim. 5:21.
448. In quotations from the Old Testament a participle is sometimes placed before a personal form of the same verb.  The idiom arises from an imitation of the Hebrew construction with the Infinitive Absolute. The force of the participle is in general intensive. Hr. 28, 3, a; B. pp. 313 f.; WM. pp. 445 f.; WT. pp. 354f.
Heb. 6:14; euvlogw/n euvlogh,sw se, blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply thee.
449. The Adverbial Participle of Attendant Circumstance.
Mark 16:20; evkei/noi de. evxelqo,ntej evkh,ruxan pantacou/( tou/ kuri,ou sunergou/ntoj kai. to.n lo,gon bebaiou/ntoj dia. tw/n evpakolouqou,ntwn shmei,wn, and they went forth and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them and confirming the word.

Luke 4:15; kai. auvto.j evdi,dasken evn tai/j sunagwgai/j auvtw/n doxazo,menoj u`po. pa,ntwn, and he taught in their synagogues, being glonfied of all.

Acts 15:22; to,te e;doxe toi/j avposto,loij kai. toi/j presbute,roij . . . evklexame,nouj a;ndraj evx auvtw/n pe,myai eivj VAntio,ceian, then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders . . . to choose men out of their company and send them to Antioch.

Acts 18:18; o` de. Pau/loj . . . evxe,plei eivj th.n Suri,an( kai. su.n auvtw/| Pri,skilla kai. VAku,laj( keira,menoj evn Kegcreai/j th.n kefalh,n, and Paul . . . sailed thence for Syria, and with him Priscilla and Aquila; having shorn his head in Cenchreæ.

2 Tim. 4:11; Ma/rkon avnalabw.n a;ge meta. seautou, take Mark and bring him with thee. See also Luke 5:7; 11:7.

450. The term “attendant” as used above does not define the temporal relation of the participle to the verb, but the logical relation. The action of a Participle of Attendant Circumstance may precede the action of the principal verb, accompany it, or even follow it. But as respects logical relation, it is presented merely as an accompaniment of the action of the verb. It does not, e.g., define the time or the cause, or the means of the action of the principal verb, but simply prefixes or adds an associated fact or conception. It is thus often equivalent to a coordinate verb with kai,. Though grammatically not an independent element of the sentence, the participle in such cases becomes in thought assertive, hortatory, optative, imperative, etc., according to the function of the principal verb.

The position of the Participle of Attendant Circumstance with reference to the verb is not determined by any fixed rules, but by the order of the writer’s thought, this being in turn governed of course to a certain extent by the order of the events. If the action of the participle is antecedent to that of the verb, the participle most commonly precedes the verb, but not invariably. Such a participle is usually in the Aorist tense (134), but occasionally in the Present (127). If the action of the participle is simultaneous with that of the verb, it may either precede or follow the verb, more frequently the latter. It is of course in the Present tense (119). If the action of the participle is subsequent to that of the principal verb, it almost invariably follows the verb, the tense of the participle being determined by the conception of the action as respects its progress. The instances of this last-named class are not frequent in the New Testament and are perhaps due to Aramaic influence. Cf. 119, Rem.; 145.

451. The various relations of time, cause, manner, etc., being not expressed, but implied by the participle, cases arise in which it is impossible to assign the participle unquestionably to any one of the above heads. Indeed, more than one of these relations may be implied by the same participle.

452. THE GENITIVE ABSOLUTE. An Adverbial Participle may stand in agreement with a noun or pronoun in the genitive without grammatical dependence upon any other part of the sentence, the two constituting a genitive absolute phrase and expressing any of the adverbial relations enumerated in 435-449. HA. 970, 971; G. 1568.

Rom. 9:1; avlh,qeian le,gw evn Cristw/|( ouv yeu,domai( summarturou,shj moi th/j suneidh,sew,j mou evn pneu,mati a`gi,w|, I say the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience bearing witness with me in the Holy Ghost.  See also John 5:30; Acts 12:18; 18:20.
453. The noun or pronoun of the genitive absolute phrase regularly refers to a person or thing not otherwise mentioned in the sentence.  Occasionally, however, this principle is violated, and the genitive phrase may even refer to the subject of the sentence. This irregularity is somewhat more frequent in the New Testament than in classical Greek. HA. 972, d.; G.MT. 850. See Matt. 1:18; Acts 22:17, and other examples in B. pp. 315 f.

454. A participle in the genitive absolute occasionally stands alone without an accompanying noun or pronoun, when the person or thing referred to is easily perceived from the context. HA. 972, a. ; G. 1568; G.MT. 848. See Luke 12:36; Rom. 9:11.

455. The Adverbial Participle always stands in the so-called predicative position, i.e. not in attributive position, which is between the article and its noun or after an article following the noun. Cf. 427.