154   155  156


154. The Perfect Participle is used of completed action. Like the Perfect Indicative it may have reference to the past action and the resulting state or only to the resulting state. The time of the resulting state is usually that of the principal verb. HA. 856; G. 1288.
Acts 10:17; oi` a;ndrej oi` avpestalme,noi . . . evpe,sthsan evpi. to.n pulw/na, the men who had been sent . . . stood before the gate.

Rom. 15:14; peplhrwme,noi pa,shj Îth/jÐ gnw,sewj, filled with all knowledge.

Luke 8:46; e;gnwn du,namin evxelhluqui/an avpV evmou/, I perceived that power had gone forth from me.

155. The Perfect Participle stands in two passages of the New Testament as the predicate of the participle . The effect is of a Perfect Participle clearly marked as one of existing state. See Eph. 4:18; Col. 1:21.

156. The Perfect Participle is occasionally used as a Pluperfect to denote a state existing antecedent to the time of the principal verb. The action of which it is the result is, of course, still earlier.

John 11:44; evxh/lqen o` teqnhkw.j dedeme,noj tou.j po,daj kai. ta.j cei/raj keiri,aij, he that was [or had been] dead came forth bound hand and foot with grave-clothes. See also Mark 5:15,  evschko,ta, noting the Present Participle in the same verse and the Aorist Participle in v. 18; also 1 Cor. 2:7, avpokekrumme,nhn, comparing v. 10.