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THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE.

119. The Present Participle of Simultaneous Action. The Present Participle most frequently denotes an action in progress, simultaneous with the action of the principal verb. HA. 856; G. 1288.
Mark 16:20; evkei/noi de. evxelqo,ntej evkh,ruxan pantacou/( tou/ kuri,ou sunergou/ntoj, and they went forth and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them.

Acts 10:44; Eti lalou/ntoj tou/ Pe,trou ta. r`h,mata tau/ta evpe,pesen to. pneu/ma to. a[gion evpi. pa,ntaj tou.j avkou,ontaj to.n lo,gon, while Peter was yet speaking these words, the Holy Ghost Fell on all them which heard the word.

REM. The action of the verb and that of the participle may be of the same extent (Mark 16:20), but are not necessarily so. Oftener the action of the verb falls within the period covered by the participle (Acts 10:44).

Even a subsequent action is occasionally expressed by a Present Participle, which in this case stands after the verb. Cf. 145.

Acts 19:9; avfw,risen tou.j maqhta.j kaqV h`me,ran dialego,menoj evn th/| scolh/| Tura,nnou, he separated the disciples, reasoning daily in the school of Tyrannus. See also Acts 17:13; 18:23.
120. The Present Participle of Identical Action. The Present Participle not infrequently denotes the same action which is expressed by the verb of the clause in which it stands.
John 6:6; tou/to de. e;legen peira,zwn auvto,n, and this he said trying him. See also Matt. 27:41; John 21:19; Acts 9:22; Gal. 3:23.
121. The verb and the participle of identical action, though denoting the same action, usually describe it from a different point of view. The relation between the different points of view varies greatly. It may be the relation of fact to method, as in Acts 9:22; 15:24, 29; of outward form to inner significance or quality, as in Luke 22:65; or of act to purpose or result, as in Matt. 16:1; John 6:6.

122. A Present Participle of Identical Action, since it denotes action in progress, most naturally accompanies a verb denoting action in progress. Sometimes, however, a Present Participle accompanies an Aorist verb denoting the same action; regularly so in the phrase avpekri,nato [avpekri,qh] le,gwn; see Mark 15:9; Luke 3:16; John 1:26; etc.

Acts 15:24; evta,raxan u`ma/j lo,goij avnaskeua,zontej ta.j yuca.j u`mw/n, they have troubled you with words, subverting your souls. See also Acts 1:3; 22:4; Gen. 43:6.
Similarly a Present Participle representing the action as in progress, may accompany an Aoristic Future, which conceives of it simply as an event. Acts 15:29; 1 Macc. 12:22.

123. The General Present Participle. The Present Participle is also used without reference to time or progress, simply defining its subject as belonging to a certain class, i.e. the class of those who do the action denoted by the verb. The participle in this case becomes a simple adjective or noun and is, like any other adjective or noun, timeless and indefinite. B. pp. 296 f.; WM. p. 444; WT. p. 353.

Acts 10:22; Kornh,lioj e`katonta,rchj( avnh.r di,kaioj kai. fobou,menoj to.n qeo,n, Cornelius a centurion, a righteous and God-fearing man.

Mark 5:16; pw/j evge,neto tw/| daimonizome,nw, what had happened to the demoniac.

Gal. 6:6; koinwnei,tw de. o` kathcou,menoj to.n lo,gon tw/| kathcou/nti evn pa/sin avgaqoi/j, but let him that is taught in the word communicate to him that teacheth in all good things.

124. A class may consist of those who habitually or constantly do a given act, or of those who once do the act the single doing of which is the mark of the class. The former case is illustrated in Matt. 5:6; the latter in Rev. 14:13.
Matt. 5:6; maka,rioi oi` peinw/ntej kai. diyw/ntej th.n dikaiosu,nhn, blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness.

Rev. 14:13; maka,rioi oi` nekroi. oi` evn kuri,w| avpoqnh,|skontej, blessed are the dead which die in the Lord. See also Matt. 7:13.

In the first class of cases the Present Participle only can be used; in the second class either an Aorist (as in Matt. 23:20; 26:52; John 16:2, et al.) or a Present may occur, and that, either in the plural designating the class as such, or in the singular designating an individual of the class.

Thus panti. avnqrw,pw| peritemnome,nw| (Gal. 6:3; cf. 6:13) does not mean, to every man that is wont to be circumcised, but, to every man that is circumcised, i.e. that receives circumcision (R.V., correctly though not literally). So also in Heb. 5:1 lambano,menoj does not mean, one that is wont to be taken, but, that is taken. Being once taken is the mark of the class here referred to, as being once circumcised is the mark of the class referred to in Gal. 5:3. The customariness applies not to the action of the individual member of the class, but to that of the class as a whole; as in Heb. 5:1, the Present Indicative kaqi,stati may be rendered, is wont to be appointed, not in the sense, each one is wont to be [repeatedly] appointed, but, it is wont to happen to each that he is appointed. Cf. 126. In Luke 16:15 pa/j o` avpolu,wn means not, every one that is wont to divorce, still less, every one that has divorced, but, every one that divorces.

125. Through the ambiguity of the English Passive form, such Present Participles as those just referred to (124) are easily taken by the English interpreter as equivalent to Perfect Participles, but always to the greater or less distortion of the meaning of the passage.1

Thus in Gal. 6:3 (see 124) peritemnome,nw| is not equivalent to a Perfect, every circumcised man. The apostle is not speaking of circumcision as an accomplished fact, but of becoming circumcised. Similarly Heb. 5:1 refers not to one that has been taken (German: ist genommen worden), but that is taken (German: wird genommen). In Heb. 5:4 kalou,menoj is one that is (not, has been) called. In Luke 13:23, eiv ovli,goi oi` sw|zo,menoi, the participle is undoubtedly a General Present, the inquiry being neither on the one hand as to the number of those that are already saved (Perfect of Existing State) or (Perfect of Completed Action) nor, on the other, with reference to those that are being saved (Progressive Present of Simultaneous Action), but with reference to those that are [i.e. become] saved. Cf. Luther's version, meinst du, dass wenige selig werden? and Weizsäcker's, sind es wenige, die gerettet werden?

The same participle in Acts 2:47; 1 Cor. 1:18; 2 Cor. 2:15, may be understood in the same way, and be rendered, we that are (in the sense we that become) saved, or may be taken as in R.V. as a Progressive Present of Simultaneous Action. It cannot mean the saved in the sense of those that have been saved. The statement of Dr. T. W. Chambers in J.B.L. June 1886, p. 40, that "the passive participle of the present tense in Greek is often, if not generally, used to express a completed action," is wholly incorrect, and derives all its verisimilitude from the ambiguity of the English Passive forms.

126. A General Present Participle sometimes occurs in the singular when the person to whom it refers constitutes the class designated. This limitation of the phrase to an individual is accomplished, however, not by the participle, but by its limitations. John 13:11, to.n paradido,nta auvto,n, probably means simply his betrayer. The participle paradidou,j alone designates any one belonging to the class of betrayers. It is the addition of the article and an object that restricts the participle to one person.

127. The Present Participle for the Imperfect. The Present Participle is also sometimes used as an Imperfect to denote a continued action antecedent to that of the principal verb. HA. 856, a; G. 1289; G.MT. 140.

Matt. 2:20; teqnh,kasin ga.r oi` zhtou/ntej th.n yuch.n tou/ paidi,ou, for they are dead that were seeking the young child's life. See also John 12:17; Acts 4:34 (cf. v. 37); 10:7; Gal. 1:23.
128. The following uses of the Present Participle are closely analogous to the uses of the Present Indicative already described under similar names. They are of somewhat infrequent occurrence in the New Testament.

129. (a) THE CONATIVE PRESENT.

Matt. 23:13 (WH. et al., 14); ouvde. tou.j eivsercome,nouj avfi,ete eivselqei/n, neither suffer ye them that are entering in to enter. See also Acts 28:23.
130. (b) THE PRESENT FOR THE FUTURE, the action denoted being thought of as future with reference to the time of the principal verb.
Acts 21:3; evkei/se ga.r to. ploi/on h=n avpofortizo,menon to.n go,mon, for there the ship was to unlade her burden.
131. (c) THE PRESENT OF PAST ACTION STILL IN PROGRESS, the action denoted beginning before the action of the principal verb and continuing in progress at the time denoted by the latter.
Acts 9:33; eu-ren de. evkei/ a;nqrwpo,n tina ovno,mati Aivne,an evx evtw/n ovktw. katakei,menon evpi. kraba,ttou, and there he found a certain man named Æneas, who had been lying on a bed eight years. See also Matt. 9:20; Mark 5:25; Luke 8:43; John 5:5; Acts 24:10.

1This ambiguity of the English may be Illustrated by the form is written. In the sentence, It is written in your law, etc., is written is a Perfect of Existing State, and is expressed by the Greek Perfect ge,graptai. The German would be ist geschrieben. In the sentence, The name of each scholar is written in the register as he enters the school, the same form is a Present of customary action, and would be expressed in Greek by gra,fetai, and in German by wird geschrieben.