[BACK]
89
90
91
92
93
94


THE PLUPERFECT.

89. The Pluperfect of Completed Action. The Pluperfect is used of an action which was complete at a point of past time implied in the context. HA. 847; G. 1250, 4.
Acts 9:21; kai. w-de eivj tou/to evlhlu,qei, and he had come hither for this intent.

John 9:22; h;dh ga.r sunete,qeinto oi` VIoudai/oi, for the Jews had agreed already. See also Luke 8:2; Acts 7:44; 19:32.

90. The Pluperfect of Existing State. Verbs which in the Perfect denote a present state, in the Pluperfect denote a past state. HA. 849, c; G. 1263.
Luke 4:41; h;|deisan to.n Cristo.n auvto.n ei=nai, they knew that he was the Christ. See also John 18:16, 18; Acts 1:10.
91. PERIPHRASTIC FORM OF THE PLUPERFECT. A periphrastic Pluperfect formed by adding the Perfect Participle to the Imperfect of the verb eivmi, is somewhat frequent in the New Testament. In classical Greek this was already the only form in the third person plural of liquid and mute verbs, and an occasional form elsewhere. In the New Testament these periphrastic forms are frequently, but not at all uniformly, Pluperfects of existing state; about one-third of the whole number of instances belong to the class of Pluperfects denoting completed action, referring to the past act as well as the existing result. Cf. G.MT. 45.
Matt. 26:43; h=san ga.r auvtw/n oi` ovfqalmoi. bebarhme,noi, for their eyes were heavy, lit. weighed down.

Luke 2:26; kai. h=n auvtw/| kecrhmatisme,non u`po. tou/ pneu,matoj tou/ a`gi,ou, and it had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit.

92. The ambiguity of the English sometimes renders it impossible to distinguish in transla-tion between a Pluperfect of Existing State and an Historical Aorist. Thus in Acts 4:27 and 31 we must in both cases read were gathered, though the verb in the former case is an Aorist and refers to an act, and in the latter a Perfect and refers to a state. Cf. also the two verbs in Luke 15:24.

93. The simple Future Perfect does not occur in the New Testament. Respecting Luke 19:40, see B. p. 61; and the lexicons s.v.

94. A periphrastic Future Perfect, expressing a future state, occurs in Matt. 16:19; 18:18; Luke 12:52; Heb. 2:13.